Spirituality and Multiculturalismin CPE Supervision Yvonne Valeris, M.Div., Ph.D., B.C.C., ACPE Supervisor email@example.com ACPE Webinar April 18, 2013
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision • Spiritual Values • Multicultural Values • Spiritual Competency • Multicultural Competency • Supervision
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Purpose The purpose of this webinar is offering a paradigm for the development of spiritual and multicultural competencies that keeps spirituality and multiculturalism “together” as a continuous process in CPE Supervision.
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Objectives At the conclusion of this webinar, participants will be able to articulate: • their spiritual and multicultural values • their spiritual and multicultural competencies • their declaration to bring “together” spirituality and multiculturalism in CPE Supervision as a continuous process
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Criteria: • Creator • Interpathy • Letting go of ethnocentrism • Everyone’s Voice • Creativity • Patience • Observation
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Definition of Terms Supervisionis a formal relationship in which the supervisor's duty includes sharing expert knowledge, evaluating the student’s performance and acting as a gatekeeper to the profession. The supervisor has power in this relationship. The ongoing dialogue between the supervisor and student and the processes within the supervisory relationship foster empowerment of the student. Supervisory relationship has three phases: 1) beginning phase, 2) mature phase and 3) the terminating phase. (Bradley, L. J., 2001, pp.30-31)
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Definition of Terms Spirituality refers to the human capacity for relationship with self, others, world and God… Spirituality has to do with our characteristic style of relating and has five integrated dimensions: • relationship with transcendence • intra-personal (relationship with self) • Inter-personal (relationship with another) • Corporate (relationships among people) • Spatial (relationship with both place and things). (Lartey, 2003, pp. 140-141)
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Spirituality as relationship with Transcendence: • Universal human ability to worship Transcendence • Common ground in worshipping Transcendence • God, Allah, Mystery, Creator, Holy, the One… • Gye Nyame (Ghanaian): “Without God nothing holds together; nothing has any meaning.” (Mercy Oduyoye, 1986, p.90).
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Spirituality as relationship with self: • Coming to self-realization (individuation) • Healthy relationships with self • Low self-esteem dignity, pride and value • Overflowing self-esteem humility • See self and engage in self-critique • Critical conversations with self (essence of humanity)
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Spirituality as interpersonal relationship: • I-Thou relationship with another person in which mutuality, respect, accountability and friendship are sustained (Buber, 1970). • Yearning for intimacy • Longing for closeness • Yearning for union with “the other”
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Spirituality as corporate: • One can speak of the spirituality of ACPE - the power or force of ACPE’s mission statement: “Advancing exceptional experience-based theological education and professional practice to heal a hurting world”(www.acpe.edu) . • We can speak of the spirituality of members of ACPE: Jewish, Islamic, Lutheran, Episcopalian, Franciscan or Buddhist spirituality that influences patterns of prayer and relationships with others.
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Spirituality as corporate (Cont’d): Dennis E. Kenny, Regional Director of ECR-ACPE: “It was good to see folks at the ECR meeting … I was reminded again that to do this work ‘it takes a village.’ Working in isolation and doing CPE supervision does not go together…”(ECR Newsletter, March 2013) In essence an active CPE supervisor belongs to the whole village of ACPE, and involves in the beliefs, conferences, rituals and celebrations of ACPE (local, regional, national & REM).
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Spirituality as corporate (Cont’d): A supervisor cannot detach him/herself from the activities of ACPE, for to do so is to be severed from his/her roots, foundation, context of security, membership and the entire group of those who make him/her aware of his/her own existence. Solidarity of belonging through participation in ACPE is the mark of being a CPE supervisor.
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Spirituality as spatial: The main symbol of CPE Supervisors’ existence is “in the circle.” The circle signifies community. The circle is a leveling ground and a non-hierarchical symbol. The goal of ACPE spirituality is “to heal a hurting world.” ACPE codifications inspire CPE supervisors to express spirituality as relationship with the circle.
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Stages in the spiritual journey: • Chaotic-antisocial • Formal-institutional • Skeptic-individual • Mystic-communal M. Scott Peck, 1987
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Stage 1 Chaotic-antisocial: nonspiritual, self-focused, and unethical life. Stage 2 Formal-institutional: ethical code and “formal” religious expressions Stage 3 Skeptic-individual: disengaged from church to seek personal meanings Stage 3 Mystic-communal: appreciation for connectedness and unity with life
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision • The spiritual development stage of the CPE Supervisor will impact his or her effectiveness with the CPE student. • It is suggested that the CPE supervisor be one step ahead of the CPE student; for example, a Stage 2 supervisor may work well with a Stage 1 CPE student.
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Spiritual Competency Inventory _ I recognize the positive points of my religion. _ I have a compassionate understanding. _ I do not ascribe to oppression. _ I rejected my childhood religion. _ I do not forgive oppression. _ I am aware of the process of awakening to social justice issues and oppression. _ I can take care of the poor, the homeless and the sick. _ I can identify a person acting out of fear, ignorance and projection of a disowned self. _ I use compassion as a tool for empowering persons oppressed by hatred, prejudice and discrimination. _ I love people. _ I am comfortable working with conflict. _ I believe that Faith is important to me. _ I find meaning in sacredness and mystery. _I easily extend grace to those who are different. _ I am comfortable with different religious perspectives. _ I have gained a broader understanding of my spiritual starting place through multicultural perspectives.
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Spiritual Competent CPE Supervisors will be able to: • Articulate connections and similarities between religious, spiritual and transpersonal phenomena • Describe diverse religious, spiritual and transpersonal beliefs and practices • Engage self-reflection of one’s religious, spiritual and transpersonal beliefs to enhance self-understanding and acceptance of one’s belief system • Explain one model of spiritual development • Show empathy for understanding a variety of religious, spiritual and transpersonal communication • Identify limits to one’s tolerance of religious, spiritual and transpersonal phenomena and in case of intolerance, make appropriate referral • Assess relevance, spiritual and transpersonal substance in student's issue • Be respectful of student’s religious and spiritual preferences (ASERVIC))
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPESupervision ASERVIC (Slide # 18): Adapted from the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Multiculturalism: becomes a state of being, a process, and ebb and flow of kinetic forces that is aimed at inclusivity and the valuing of people for who they are. Multiculturalism includes: • Social justice • Social diversity • Communication process
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Social Justice: working toward justice for all people, working toward reducing the impact of “isms” and working on an institutional level as opposed to working on an individual or cultural level
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Social Diversity: Different cultural groups being represented (i.e., social identity groups based on race, gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, religion, ability and disability status, socioeconomic status, age and national origin)
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Communication Process: Dialogue, working with conflict( as opposed to conflict resolution), alliance and coalition building between groups of people are aimed at inclusion (therefore combating exclusion) and “hearing everyone’s voices.” (Fukuyama, M.A. and Sevig, T.D., 1999)
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Paradigm for Multicultural Competency • Personal Awareness • Knowledge • Skills • Passion • Action
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Personal Awareness (Definition: awareness of self as a member of social groups and of self in a system of oppression) • aware of the impact of my social identity group memberships on myself • able to verbalize and act on my awareness of how my social identity group memberships impacts others • aware of the impact of my interpersonal style on others • aware of and able to articulate my values • able to recognize areas in which I need to grow
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Knowledge (Definition: information/knowledge) • know multiple groups’ histories and experiences in this country • recognize the history of oppression • recognize the importance of histories of various social groups • know models, conceptual frameworks, and terminology
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Skills (Definition: facilitating change in individuals, groups, and systems; managing critical incidents; strategic action) • provide feedback in a direct manner; receive feedback in an open manner • recognize group dynamics in a manner that includes multicultural factors • address oppressive behavior in a manner that allows others to hear and which is based on behavioral data • able to intervene in group situations and ask educational questions
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Passion (Definition: deep personal reason for caring about and doing this CPE supervision and the ability to articulate this to others) • ability to communicate compassion and empathy • ability to share strong feelings of anger, fear, love, guilt, love, joy, etc. when appropriate • ability to lead with both heart and head
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Action (Definition: ability to act in a manner consistent with awareness, knowledge, skills, and passion) • can interrupt oppression • can take proactive measures against oppression • can identify opportunities for action (Paradigm for Multicultural Competency was adapted from Todd Sevig, Ximena Zúniga, Diana Kardia, Andrea Monroe-Fowler, and Cesar Valdez from a model by Cesar Jackson, Ed.D., and the National Training Laboratory Members’ Diversity Conference 01/93, Washington, DC.)
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Multicultural Communication Blockers: • blaming (victim or perpetrator) • feeling guilty, which immobilizes ( as opposed to guilt that is part of the process of unlearning and learning) • dominant (majority) group members thinking they know total experience • telling to the exclusion of listening • listening to the exclusion of telling • not owning “your own stuff” • focusing only on one social group identity • struggling to deal with other people’s feelings and your own feelings • thinking dichotomously (either/or) • wanting answers or solutions in a hurry • lashing out • working toward multiculturalism ONLY to help minorities • Leaving prematurely from a process because it is too uncomfortable
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Multicultural Competency Inventory _ I immerse myself into cross-cultural experiences. _ Cross-cultural involvements increase my spiritual evolvement. _ I am free from residual baggage associated with past traditions. _ I can define a cross-cultural problem. _ Learning how to observe behaviors is more effective than following a list of “do’s and don’ts.” _ I believe cross-cultural experiences change my expectations of the other. _ My cultural identity is different than my personal identity. _ l learn a lot about my own culture from cross-cultural contacts. _ I am aware of my reactions in the presence of a culture that is different from my own.
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Multicultural Competency Inventory (Cont’d) _ I refrain from prematurely judging others. _ I assume that others are like me. _ I withdraw when I feel uncomfortable as a result of unmet expectations. _ I create a cultural incident when I expect others to be like me. _ I use self-reflection and self-exploration when I feel fear and anger in cross- cultural events. _ I have a large worldview owing to my cross-cultural experiences. _ I work with administration to promote zero tolerance of incivility in the work place. _ I have a greater inclusiveness and connectedness with others.
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision As people have experiences with others that make a difference in their intercultural sensitivity, they move on a continuum from the “Ethnocentric”stages (small world view) to the “Ethnorelative”stages (large world view). (Bennett, Milton J. The Intercultural Communication Institute, Portland, OR, 2001.) ETHNOCENTRIC Denial Defense Minimization Adaptation Integration ETHNORELATIVE
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Slide #35 Spiritual Values & Multicultural Values (From: M.A. Fukuyama and T. D. Sevig. Integrating Spirituality and Multicultural Awareness, a workshop presented at Loyola University, Chicago, 11/92)
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision CPE Supervisor as a Multicultural Self • self with-environment; actively participates with context • attends to his/her development of self-in-context • sees self-in-relation to cultural influences; self-in-relation replaces our traditional conception of the individual self • implies knowledge about what is meant by “multicultural” to begin with, and then there is an active identification with that meaning in a supervisor’s day-to-day existence • understanding his/her own assumptions, values and biases is an important first step before understanding (1) the worldview of culturally different students, and (2) before developing intervention strategies and techniques to work with students
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision The Supervisor as a multicultural self would mean the day-to-day conscious experiencing of self as “loyal to and embracing” of more than one culture (i.e., not simply of the presence two or more races or cultures). Multicultural Grid (Baldwin, 2009, pp. 175-176)
Supervisor: A Multicultural Self I am_________ (name) _______________. I am _________ (ethnicity) _____________. I am _________ (gender) _____________. I am _________ (socioeconomic; economic security). I am_________ (religion) _____________. I am ________ (sexual orientations) _____________. I am ______ (disability) ___________. I am ________ (age) ________________. I am fluent ___ (Language(s)) __________.
Spirituality and Multiculturalism in CPE Supervision Conclusion Integrating spirituality and multiculturalism in CPE supervision is a continuous process. This ongoing integration will result in increased personal awareness, development, and enhanced effectiveness in supervising CPE students.
References Baldwin, M. (2009). Use of Self in Therapy. Routeledge. Bradley, L.J. and Ladany, N. (2000.) Counselor Supervision. MI: Braun- Brumfield. Fukuyama, M.A. and Sevig, T.D. (1999). Integrating Spirituality into Multicultural Counseling. CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Lartey, E.Y. (2003). In Living Color. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Oduyoye, M. (1986). Hearing and Knowing: Theological Reflection on Christianity in Africa. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis. Peck, M. S. (1987). The Different Drum: Community-making and Peace. New York: Simon & Schuster. Singelis, T.M. (1998). Teaching About Culture, Ethnicity, and Diversity: Exercises and Planned Activities. Thousand Oaks, CA: sage Publications, Inc.