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Semantics: The Analysis of Meaning. Deny A. Kwary Airlangga University. Lexical Semantics (cf. p.274). Semantic properties: The components of meaning of a word.

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semantics the analysis of meaning

Semantics: The Analysis of Meaning

Deny A. Kwary

Airlangga University

lexical semantics cf p 274
Lexical Semantics (cf. p.274)
  • Semantic properties: The components of meaning of a word.
  • Semantic feature: A notational device for expressing the presence or absence of semantic properties by pluses and minuses.
  • Example of componential analysis:

baby is [+ young], [+ human], [– abstract].

identify the features 1
Identify the features (1)

1. (a) widow, mother, sister, aunt, maid

(b) widower, father, brother, uncle, valet

  • The (a) and (b) words are
  • The (a) words are
  • The (b) words are

[+ human]

[+ female]

[+ male]

2. (a) bachelor, paperboy, pope, chief

(b) bull, rooster, drake, ram

  • The (a) and (b) words are
  • The (a) words are
  • The (b) words are

[+ male]

[+ human]

[+ animal]

identify the features 2
Identify the features (2)

3. (a) table, stone, pencil, cup, house, ship

(b) milk, alcohol, rice, soup, mud

  • The (a) words are
  • The (b) words are

[+ count]

[- count]

4. (a) pine, elm, sycamore

(b) dandelion, aster, daisy

  • The (a) and (b) words are
  • The (a) words are
  • The (b) words are

[+ plant]

[+ tree]

[+ flower]

semantic relations among words p 269
Semantic Relations among Words (p. 269)
  • Synonymy: words that have the same meanings, e.g. start & begin.
  • Antonymy: words that are opposites in meanings, e.g. hot & cold.

Synonymy or Antonymy (p. 307)

  • Flourish – thrive
  • Intelligent – stupid
  • Casual – informal
  • Flog – whip
  • Drunk – sober
  • synonym
  • antonym
  • synonym
  • synonym
  • antonym
semantic relations among words cf page 270 with critical notes
Semantic Relations among Words (cf. page 270; with critical notes)
  • Polysemy: A word which has two or more related meanings, e.g. bright: ‘shining’ ; ‘intelligent’
  • Homonymy: A word which has two or more entirely distinct meanings, e.g. club: ‘a social organization’ ; ‘a blunt weapon’.
  • Homophony: Different words pronounced the same but spelled differently, e.g. two and too.
  • Homography: Different words spelled the same but pronounced differently, e.g. minute and minute.
identifying homophones
Identifying homophones

1. [steə] 

1. Stair, stare

2. [weist] 

2. waste, waist

3. [si:liη] 

3. sealing, ceiling

4. [kju:] 

4. cue, queue

5. [sent] 

5. sent, cent, scent

Identifying homographs
  • Read
  • Wind
  • Live
  • Tear
  • Invalid
  • Bow
  • Dove
identifying homonyms in jokes
Identifying Homonyms in Jokes

1. Time flies like an arrow

Fruit flies like a banana

2. Policeman: Why have you parked your car here?

Motorist: Because the sign says “Fine for Parking”.

3. Customer: Have you got half-inch nails?

Ironmonger: Yes, sir.

Customer: Then could you scratch my back. It’s very itchy

More semantic relations among words
  • Hyponymy: Words whose meanings are specific instances of a more general word, e.g. isosceles and equilateral are hyponyms of the word triangle.
  • Metonymy: A word substituted for another word with which it is closely associated, e.g. diamond for a baseball field.
  • Retronymy: An expression that would once have been redundant, but which societal or technoligical changes have made nonredundant, e.g. silent movies movies  silent movies
that s all for today see you next week

That’s All For TodaySee You Next Week

Deny A. Kwary

Airlangga University