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Nies & McEwan : Chapter 28 Occupational Health. J. Carley MSN, MA, RN, CNE Fall, 2009. (Reuters) Shanxi Province Coal Miner. Occupational Health Nursing.

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nies mcewan chapter 28 occupational health

Nies & McEwan: Chapter 28Occupational Health

J. Carley MSN, MA, RN, CNE

Fall, 2009

(Reuters) Shanxi Province Coal Miner

occupational health nursing
Occupational Health Nursing

The specialty practice that focuses on the promotion, prevention, and restoration of health within the context of a safe and healthy environment.

American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, 2004

occupational health nursing1
Occupational health nursing…

…includes the prevention of adverse health effects from occupational and environmental hazards.

…provides for and delivers occupational and environmental health and safety programs and services to clients.

…is an autonomous specialty, and nurses make independent nursing judgments in providing health care services.

American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, 2004

occupational health nursing cont d
Occupational health nursing… (cont’d)

…has a multidisciplinary base.

  • Nursing science
  • Medical science
  • Occupational health sciences
  • Epidemiology
  • Business and economic theories, concepts, and principles
  • Social and behavioral sciences
  • Environmental health
  • Legal and ethical issues
evolution of occupational health nursing
Evolution of Occupational Health Nursing
  • 1888: Betty Moulder hired by a group of coal mining companies
  • 1893: Ada Mayo Stewart was “first industrial nurse”
  • 1912: Workers’ compensation legislation passed
  • 1942: Health conservation of the “industrial army”
  • 1942: American Association of Industrial Nurses
  • 1977: AAIN became American Association of Occupational Health Nurses
  • 1993: Office of Occupational Health Nursing (OSHA)
occupational health nursing practice and professionalism
Occupational Health Nursing Practice and Professionalism
  • Often the sole guardian of health for workers.
  • Roles are diverse and complex.
  • Coordinates comprehensive, holistic services.
  • Practice guided by AAOHN’s Standards of Occupational and Environmental Health Nursing Practice and Code of Ethics (2004).
  • Empowered, well-trained, usually educated at the baccalaureate level.
the occupation health nurse
The Occupation Health Nurse
  • Meets the needs of employees; is a worker advocate.
  • Must practice within a framework of company policies and guidelines.
  • Practice guided by an ethical framework.
  • Must seize opportunities in program planning, research, and policymaking.
types of occupational hazards
Types of Occupational Hazards
  • Prevention of Exposure to Potential Hazards
    • Biological
    • Chemical
    • Enviromechanical
    • Physical
    • Psychosocial
work related disease or injury
Work-Related Disease or Injury
  • Occupational lung disease
  • Musculoskeletal injuries
  • Occupational cancers
  • Trauma
  • CVDs
  • Reproductive disorders
  • Neurotoxic disorders
  • Noise-induced hearing loss
  • Dermatological conditions
  • Psychological disorders
primary prevention strategies
Primary Prevention Strategies
  • Facilitate lifestyle changes
    • Enhance awareness
    • Change behaviors
    • Create environments that support good health practices
  • Recognize health risks, diseases, or environmental hazards—“seize the moment”
  • Use aggregate-focused intervention strategies—“walk-throughs”
primary prevention strategies cont d
Primary Prevention Strategies (cont’d)
  • Overall health promotion
    • Health fairs, on-site fitness center, etc.
  • Nonoccupational programs
    • Cardiovascular health, immunization, accident prevention, stress management, etc.
  • Occupational health programs
    • Emergency response, CPR, first aid, etc.
  • Women’s health and safety issues
    • Maternal-child health, reproductive health, breast cancer early detection, work-home balance, etc.
secondary prevention strategies
Secondary Prevention Strategies
  • Direct care for episodic illness and injury
  • Identification of health needs, health problems, and employees at risk
  • Health screenings
  • Preplacement evaluations for baseline information
  • Periodic assessments to document any changes in health
  • Job transfer evaluations
tertiary prevention strategies
Tertiary Prevention Strategies
  • Rehabilitation and restoration of the worker to an optimal level of functioning
  • Case management for the disabled employee’s successful return to work
  • Negotiation of workplace accommodations appropriate to the employee’s health limitations
  • Counseling and support for workers
levels of practice
Levels of Practice
  • Competent
    • Mastery of skills, ability to cope with specific situations, consistency of practice
  • Proficient
    • Perceive situations as a whole based on past experiences, predict the events to expect, able to alter protocols when needed
  • Expert
    • Extensive experience, broad knowledge base, sense of salience grounded in practice guiding actions and priorities

Benner, 1984

skills and competencies of the occupational health nurse
Skills and Competencies of the Occupational Health Nurse
  • Skills and Competencies
    • Clinical and primary care
    • Case management
    • Workforce, workplace, and environmental issues
    • Legal and ethical responsibilities
    • Management and administration
    • Health promotion and disease prevention
    • Occupational and environmental health and safety education
    • Research
    • Professionalism
federal legislation and occupational health
Federal Legislation and Occupational Health
  • Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970)
    • Employers must “furnish a place of employment free from recognized hazards that are causing or likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees.”
  • Workers’ Compensation Acts (state based)
    • Provide income replacement and health care for employees who sustain a work-related injury or death.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)
    • Employers must make “reasonable accommodations” to enhance opportunities for individuals with disabilities; prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability.