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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH. Cruz, Ferdinand Jr. Cruz, Ma. Belle Cruz, Mary Liza. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH. a multidisciplinary activity aimed at: -the protection and promotion of health of workers -development and promotion of healthy and safe work, work environments and work organizations

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occupational health


Cruz, Ferdinand Jr.

Cruz, Ma. Belle

Cruz, Mary Liza

occupational health2


a multidisciplinary activity aimed at:

-the protection and promotion of health of workers

-development and promotion of healthy and safe work, work environments and work organizations

-enhancement of the physical, mental and social well being of workers and support for the development and maintenance of their working capacity

work environment

Recognition of health hazards

Potential health hazards:

  • Air contaminants
  • Chemical hazards
  • Biological hazards
  • Physical hazards
  • Ergonomic hazards
air contaminants
    • Dusts
    • Fumes
    • Mists
    • Aerosols
    • Fibers
chemical hazards
  • Harmful chemical compounds in the form of solids, liquids, gases. Mists, dusts, fumes and vapours that exert toxic effects by inhalation, absorption, or ingestion.


  • Exposures to bacteria, viruses, fungi and other living organisms that cause acute and chronic infections
physical hazards
  • Include:
  • Excessive noise
  • Vibration
  • Illumination
  • Temperature
  • Ionizing
  • Non-ionizing radiation
occupational diseases
Occupational diseases
  • Adverse health conditions in the human being, the occurrence or severity of which is related to exposure to factors on the job or in the work environment.
    • Physical
    • Chemical
    • Biological
    • Psychosocial stressors
    • mechanical
characteristics of occupational diseases
Characteristics of occupational diseases
  • Cthe clinical and pathological presentation is identical to that of non-occupational diseases
  • May occur after the termination of exposure
  • The clinical manifestations are rleated to dose and timing of exposure
  • Occupational factors can work in combination with non-occupational factors to produce disease
  • Primary prevention
    • Accomplised by reducing the risk of disease
  • Secondary prevention (occupational disease surveilance)
    • Identifying health problems as they become clinically apparent and intervention to limit the effects of the problem
  • Tertiary prevention
    • Minimizing the adverse clinical effects of a disease or exposure
physical hazards11
Physical hazards
  • Thermal stress
    • Cold stress
      • Vascular injury
      • Increased muscle tone
      • hypothermia
  • Heat stress
    • Vasomotor control
    • Evaporative cooling
    • Heat stroke
  • Prevention
    • Gradual exposure leading to acclimatization
    • Engineering control (proper insulation and ventilation)


    • Can lead to increased accident rates and lower productivity
    • Noise induced hearing loss
      • 85 db for prolonged period
    • Preventios
      • Design and maintenance of machinery
      • Segregation of exposure


    • Whole vibrations
    • Segmental vibrations
  • Poor or defective illumination
    • Depends on type of work and degree of precision required
    • Leads to eye strain, fatigue and increased accident


    • Non-ionizing
      • UV
      • IR
    • Ionizing
      • X-ray
      • Gamma rays
chemical hazards15
Chemical hazards
  • Gas and vapours
  • Asphyxiants
    • Nitrogen, methane, hydrogen, CO2, CO, HCN, H2S
  • Irritant gases
    • SO2, NH3, formaldehyde, ozone
  • Organometallic compounds
    • Lead, mercury, manganese
  • Anaestheticvapours
    • pesticides
biological hazards
Biological hazards
  • Occupational infections
    • Occupational TB
    • Brucellosis
      • Cattle, sheep, pigs
    • Anthrax
    • Viral hepatitis B and C
    • AIDS
work related diseases
Work-related diseases
  • Also occur in the general population
  • Working conditions and exposures need not be risk factors in any one disease
    • Behavioral and psychosomatic disorder
    • Hypertension
    • Coronary heart disease
    • Peptic ulcers
    • Chronic Nonspecific Respiratory Disease
    • Licimotor disorders
education training
Education & Training
  • The aim of safety education is to do work in a safe way until it becomes a habit
  • a training programme is needed for new employees when new equipment or processes are introduced, when procedures have been revised or updated, when new information must be made available and when performance of employees needs to be improved
education training20
Education & Training
  • Retraining is indicated in the ff:
    • High accident or injury rate
    • High labor turnover
    • Excessive waste and scrap
    • Company expansion (plants or equipment)

Evaluation of safety legislation

    • Occupational laws, regulations, and codes of practice
    • Needed for the workers’ safety
    • Responsibility of management and workers
  • Personal protection devices
    • Second line of defense
    • Must be used when engineering controls cannot be used or are inadequate
    • Masks, goggles, safety shoes, helmets, ear plugs/muffs, gloves, aprons
control of electrical hazards
Control of electrical hazards
  • Many accidents are due to defective electrical apparatus
  • All switches must have approved voltage and amperage rating compatible with intended use
  • Circuit breakers should be used when needed
  • Inspect and maintain all electrical equipment regularly
control of fire hazards principles of fire control
Control of fire hazards (principles of fire control)
  • prevent ignition
  • Store chemicals and explosives properly
  • Install and use fire alarms
  • Provide fire extinguishers (regularly inspected and maintained)
  • Train every worker to use the available fire control equipment
  • Inspect the workplace at regular intervals for fire risks
  • Conduct regular fire drills
  • Cooperate with the local fire brigade
purposes of occupational accident investigation
Purposes of occupational accident investigation
  • Used to prevent accidents
  • Can produce information that leads to countermeasures to prevent or reduce the number and severity of accidents
  • Incidents resulting in non-disabling injuries and “near accidents” should also be investigated
  • Investigations must be fact finding, and not fault finding