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WILDLAND ENGINE OPERATIONS PART 2 - Tactics. WARDEN AND DEPUTY FOREST FIRE WARDEN TRAINING 2008. General Recommendations. Fight fires in fuels consistent with engine capabilities Use direct attack whenever possible Attack flank with greatest potential for escape

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WILDLAND ENGINE OPERATIONS

PART 2 - Tactics

WARDEN AND DEPUTY FOREST FIRE WARDEN

TRAINING 2008


General recommendations
General Recommendations

  • Fight fires in fuels consistent with engine capabilities

  • Use direct attack whenever possible

  • Attack flank with greatest potential for escape

  • Use extreme caution during frontal assaults

  • Burn out unburned fuels if necessary

Reference: FLHB Pages 79-115


General recommendations1
General Recommendations

  • Recognize topography hazards

  • Avoid fire path of least resistance

  • Preserve area of origin

  • Recognize education & experience

  • Consider needs for additional or specialized resources

  • Continually assess L.C.E.S.


Arrival on scene
Arrival on Scene

  • Implement L.C.E.S

  • Size of fire/Plan of Attack

  • Fire environment

  • Location of fire head

  • Time of day

  • Values at risk

  • Sufficient resources?

  • Correct tactical decisions always provide for safety first. Comply with Fire Orders and heed watch-out situations.


Size up considerations
Size-up Considerations

  • Fuels

  • Topography

  • Weather

  • Fire Behavior

Reference: IRPG inside front cover


At the scene size up
At the Scene Size-Up

  • Weather

    • Wind

      • Speed

      • Direction

    • Temperature

      • Solar heating and drying of fuels

    • Humidity

    • Atmospheric stability


LCES

Lookout(s)

Objective

Hazard

Communications

Firefighters

Escape Route(s)

Safety Zone(s)

LCES must be established & known to ALL firefighters BEFORE needed


Fuel groups
Fuel Groups

  • Grass

  • Shrub

  • Timber Litter

  • Logging Slash


Fuel groups1
Fuel Groups

For determining strategy and tactics you must identify the following for each fuel group:

  • Rate of spread

  • Reaction to water

  • Mop up time required

  • Duration of heat and flame

  • Best engine type utilized

  • Best method of attack (indirect, direct, or parallel)


Fuel groups2
Fuel Groups

  • Grass

    Fuel Models 1-3

    Found in most areas of the country


Fuel group grass
Fuel Group (Grass)

  • Has moderate to high spread and low to moderate fireline intensity (flame length)

  • Reacts very quickly to water and additives.

  • Doesn’t require as much mopup as in the other three fuel groups.

  • Short duration of heat and flames.

  • Engine types 3-7 are most effective.

  • Direct mobile attack is effective.


Fuel groups3
Fuel Groups

Shrub

Fuel models 4-7

  • Usually shoulder height

  • Some contain natural flammable resins


Fuel group shrub
Fuel Group (Shrub)

  • Moderate to high rate of spread.

  • Moderate to high fireline intensity (flame length).

  • Short duration of heat and flame.

  • Engine types 3-7 are most effective.

  • Direct mobile attack is effective.


Fuel groups4
Fuel Groups

  • Timber Litter

    Fuel models 8-10

    • Sticks, twigs, leaves


Fuel group timber
Fuel Group (Timber)

  • Low to moderate rate of spread.

  • Low to high fireline intensity (flame length).

  • Water and additives effectively reduce rate of spread.

  • Usually requires more mopup then the grass and shrub fuel groups.

  • Engine types 3-7 are most effective.

  • Direct mobile attack with engine may be effective depending on flame length and terrain.


Fuel groups5
Fuel Groups

  • Logging Slash

    Fuel models 11-13

    • Ranges from light to heavy fuel loading


Fuel group logging slash
Fuel Group (Logging Slash)

  • Low to high rate of spread.

  • Low to very high fireline intensity (flame length).

  • Water and additives may react slowest in this fuel group.

  • Requires the most mopup of the four fuel groups.

  • Long duration of heat and flame.

  • Engine types 3-7 are most effective.

  • Indirect attack is most often effective due to fuel loading.


Types of attack
Types of Attack

  • Direct

  • Indirect

  • Parallel


Fire attack tactics
Fire Attack Tactics

  • Mobile

  • Stationary

  • Inside-Out

  • Tandem

  • Pincer

  • Envelopment

Correct Tactical DecisionsAlways Consider Safety First!


Direct attack
Direct Attack ?

  • Constructing a fireline right on the fire perimeter. Keep one foot (or tire) in the black and one in the unburned area.

  • What are some of the advantages?

  • What are some of the disadvantages?

Reference: IRPG page 9


Direct attack advantages
Direct Attack Advantages

  • If necessary, crews can escape to safety in burned areas.

  • The fire is stopped with least spread and minimum acreage.

  • Full advantage is taken of burned out areas along the control line.

  • Need for burning out is reduced.



Direct attack disadvantages
Direct Attack Disadvantages

  • Personnel subject to heat, smoke and flame.

  • Control line is long and irregular and must follow fire edge.

  • Does not always take advantage of natural fire barriers.

  • Less effective against extremely fast moving hot fires.

  • Potential for reburn.


Safety considerations
Safety Considerations

  • Consider the following to ensure the safety of your assigned personnel:

  • Fight fire in fuels consistent with engine capabilities.

  • Use direct attack when possible.

  • Attack flank with greatest potential for escape.

  • Burn out unburned fuels after coordinating with adjoining forces.


Safety considerations continued
Safety Considerations, Continued

  • Use extreme caution during frontal assaults.

  • Avoid fire path of least resistance and recognize topography hazards (chimneys, chutes, Saddles).

  • Preserve area of origin.

  • Be aware of environmental factors.

  • Recognize education and experience.


Pincer attack
Pincer Attack

  • Direct attack around fire in opposite directions by two or more engines

  • Safest to anchor at rear of fire, flank the fire, and cut off the head

  • Identify & flag anchor point(s)

  • Make sure everyone knows the anchor point(s)



Tandem fire attack
Tandem Fire Attack or more fire control resources.

  • Two engines used in a mobile attack

  • First engine crew hits hot spots, second crew totally extinguishes fire

  • Very safe - one engine can help another in times of need.


Direct attack along or more fire control resources.

a part of the fire perimeter by two or more fire control resources. Control resources follow each other (can leap frog)


Envelopment tactic
Envelopment Tactic or more fire control resources.

  • Involves striking critical segments or structures at the same time

  • Different anchor points are required for each resource

  • Engines move towards each other, tying lines together

  • Attack MUST be well coordinated


Envelopment tactic1
Envelopment Tactic or more fire control resources.

  • Most complicated attack

  • Trying to do as much as you can as fast as possible

  • Requires good communications & experienced crews

  • Good method for interface situations


Critical areas are attacked first, or more fire control resources.

Using the hotspotting technique,

then the engines start moving

towards each other.


Parallel attack
Parallel Attack or more fire control resources.

  • Constructing a fireline parallel to, but further from, the fire perimeter than in direct attack.


Parallel Attack or more fire control resources.


Constructing a fireline parallel or more fire control resources.

to, but further from, the fire perimeter

than direct attack, due to fire intensity.

May shorten line by cutting across unburned

fingers. Intervening strips of fuel are immediately

burned out.


Parallel attack1
Parallel Attack or more fire control resources.

  • Works well with engines in tandem

  • Safer to anchor a wet line & flank the fire instead of attacking head

  • Line firing personnel must be qualified!

  • Quicker than direct attack

  • Reduces heat & smoke exposure

  • Safety may be compromised prior to burning out


Parallel attack advantages
Parallel Attack, Advantages or more fire control resources.

  • May shorten line by cutting across unburned fingers.

  • Shortened line reduces actual line construction.

  • Personnel exposed to a reduced amount of heat and smoke.


Parallel attack disadvantages
Parallel Attack, Disadvantages or more fire control resources.

  • Requires personnel experienced in burning out.

  • Personnel do not always have access to the black for safety.

  • Safety may be compromised prior to the time that the unburned fuel can be burned out.


Indirect attack
Indirect Attack or more fire control resources.

  • Constructing a fireline some distance from the fire perimeter.

Reference: IRPG page 10


Indirect attack timing and coordination are critical
Indirect Attack or more fire control resources.Timing and Coordination are critical!


Firing Operations or more fire control resources.

  • Make sure firing is necessary.

  • Do not fire without consulting command and obtaining approval.

  • Coordinate firing operation with those around you.

  • May have to wait for favorable conditions.

  • Make sure you have adequate holding forces.


Indirect attack advantages
Indirect Attack, Advantages or more fire control resources.

  • Permits easier work for crew because there is less smoke, heat and flame contact.

  • May reduce length and irregularity of fire edge and control line.

  • Permits crews to take advantage of natural fire barriers.

  • Reduces danger of slopovers.


Hand crews can be used to
Hand Crews can be used to: or more fire control resources.

  • Construct handline

  • Conduct site preparation

  • Set up hose lays

  • Support engine crews

  • Conduct burn out operations

  • Mop up and patrol

    Crew Production Rates-IRPG Page 88


Indirect attack disadvantages
Indirect Attack, Disadvantages or more fire control resources.

  • Fire can catch firefighters working in unburned fuel..

  • Fire can outflank firefighters and put crew in jeopardy.

  • Increased acreage burned.

  • Burning out can cause control problems.

  • Burnout operations must be well coordinated.


Simple hose lay
Simple Hose Lay or more fire control resources.

  • A hose lay consisting of consecutively coupled lengths of hose without laterals.

  • The lay is extended by inserting additional lengths of hose in the line between pump and nozzle.

  • Can be utilized instead of the live reel in mobile attack.


Stationary attack
Stationary Attack or more fire control resources.

  • Popular on smaller incidents.

  • Utilizes progressive hose lays for more efficient water delivery.

  • Removes engine from ability to quickly & safely respond elsewhere on incident.

  • Consider folding tanks or natural water sources & replace engine with a portable pump.


Progressive hose lay
Progressive Hose Lay or more fire control resources.

  • A hose lay in which gated wyes are inserted in the main line at intervals.

  • Lateral lines are run from wyes to the fire edge.

  • Permits continuous application of water during extension of hose lay.

  • Utilized during stationary attack when access via engine is not available.


Progressive Hoselay or more fire control resources.

Charged lengths of hose are connected and extended from the engine. Laterals are put in for hot spots and mop-up.


Mobile attack
Mobile Attack or more fire control resources.

  • Mobility is essential for most efficient engine operations.

  • Mobile attack best when combined with hand crews.

  • Utilize simple hose lays from engine to reduce time in re-location or demobilization.


Mobile attack1
Mobile Attack or more fire control resources.

  • Fastest & most effective method

  • Nozzle operator always in view of driver

  • Follow up with hose & hand tools

  • Requires pump & roll capability

  • All-wheel drive desirable

  • Short wheel base best for off-road situations

  • Two nozzles best in heavier fires


Tandem Attack or more fire control resources.


Mobile Attack or more fire control resources.


Inside out tactic
Inside-Out Tactic or more fire control resources.

  • Direct attack on head or flanks from the black

  • Excellent for light fuels

  • Good safety for personnel

  • Always have a charged line to protect the engine

  • Watch for hot material!


“Inside Out” or more fire control resources.

(Working from inside the black)


Situations where mobile attack with engines should not be used
Situations Where Mobile Attack With Engines Should or more fire control resources.Not Be Used?

  • Firefighter safety is jeopardized.

  • Poor fireline access.

  • Terrain is too rough to travel.

  • Long turnaround times to obtain water.

  • Frontal attacks with fast flame spread.

  • Attacking long flame lengths.

  • Fuels too dense to negotiate.


Utilize a combination of attacks
Utilize a Combination of Attacks or more fire control resources.

If the direct attack is not working, start thinking about going parallel or indirect attack.

Be Flexible


Alternate methods to accomplish assigned task
Alternate Methods To Accomplish Assigned Task or more fire control resources.

  • Use of hand tools.

  • Use of backpack pumps.

  • Use spare pump to work with other engine crews to accomplish the assigned task.

  • Request assistance when necessary.


Responsibilities in the event of engine or equipment breakdown
Responsibilities In The Event Of Engine Or Equipment Breakdown

  • Keep your supervisor informed.

  • Re-evaluate safety considerations.

  • Keep assigned personnel informed of any changes in the tactical assignment.

  • Keep adjacent forces informed.


THANK YOU! BreakdownContinue your engine training with PART 3 - ExercisesREMEMBER

SAFETY IS EVERYONE’S RESPONSIBILITY!


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