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ICT : Does it Enhance Learning or Jeopardize it?. Roni Aviram The Center for Futurism in Education Ben-Gurion University Advanced Technologies in Education Kefallonia, Greece July 4-6, 2004k. Contents.

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ict does it enhance learning or jeopardize it

ICT : Does it Enhance Learning or Jeopardize it?

Roni Aviram

The Center for Futurism in Education

Ben-Gurion University

Advanced Technologies in Education

Kefallonia, Greece

July 4-6, 2004k

contents
Contents
  • A. The Messianic Phase in the understanding of the relationship between ICT and Learning

- A1.Lack of on-balance sustainable successes

- A.2. Lack of mindful approach and on-going systematic discourse

  • B. the Desired Post- Messianic Phase

- B.1. the Desired basic characteristics of the post-messianic phase

- B.2 Few examples of the desired post-messianic approach

slide4
A. 1. Basic Characteristics

- Messianic Optimism, hectic activity and extensive funding; combined with:

- Lack of sufficient on-balance sustainable successes

- Lack of mindful, critical approach to ICT and to the integration of ICT and learning

- Lack of , theoretical, systematic, critical and continuous discourse

A.2. The Lack of Sufficient Successes; or: Three stages of the Messianic Understanding of the Relationship between ICT and Learning

a 2 1 the computer euphoria the computer as a miraculous learning machine
A. 2. 1. The computer Euphoria: the Computer as a Miraculous Learning Machine

Hopes

  • ICT will allow:

- Optimal attention to each learner

- Immediate response/stimulation to each learner

- Learning adapted to the learner’s path

And thus:

- Will largely facilitate learning and will lead to much higher achievements and to reduction in achievements’ gaps

a 2 1 the computer euphoria the computer as a miraculous learning machine cont
A. 2. 1. The Computer Euphoria: the Computer as a Miraculous Learning Machine(Cont.)

Reality:

  • Did not Happen

Possible Reasons:

  • Too sterile learning environments
  • Too rigid learning environments
  • Too isolated learning environments
  • Lack of real understanding and mindfulness by the learner
a 2 1 the computer euphoria the computer as a miraculous learning machine cont1
A. 2. 1. The Computer Euphoria: the Computer as a Miraculous Learning Machine(Cont.)
  • Lack of internal motivation by the learner
  • Standardized learning programs and lack of customization possibilities
  • Insufficient “computer time” for learner
  • Teachers’ Alienation…
slide8

A. 2. 2. The Multimedia and Interactivity Euphoria: Multimedia and Interactivity as Leading to the Breakthrough in Motivation and Understanding

Hopes:

  • Supply of concrete colorful dynamic examples
  • Use of simulations
  • Learning in plot-like situations
  • Lively edutainment like environment
  • More independence do students
  • Immediate Access to Data Bases and the ability to form Data Bases
slide9
A. 2. 2. The Multimedia Euphoria: Multimedia as Leading to the Breakthrough in Motivation and Understanding (Cont.)
  • Interactivity
  • Optimal attention to each learner
  • Immediate response/stimulation to each learner
  • Learning adapted to the learner’s path

Will revolutionize Learning by enhancing learners’

motivation, interest and understanding and thus:

Raise learners’ achievements and reduce gaps

slide10
A. 2. 2. The Multimedia Euphoria: Multimedia as Leading to the Breakthrough in Motivation and Understanding (Cont.)

Reality:

  • Did not Happen

Possible Reasons:

  • Attention Diverted from the learning material to the environment
  • Programs not cost effective enough and thus lack of availability of good programs (especially in non English speaking countries)
  • Too sterile learning environment
slide11
A. 2. 2. The Multimedia Euphoria: Multimedia as Leading to the Breakthrough in Motivation and Understanding (Cont.)
  • Too rigid learning environments
  • Too isolated learning environment
  • Lack of real understanding and mindfulness by the learner
  • Lack of internal motivation by the learner
  • Standardized learning programs and lack of customization possibilities
  • Insufficient “computer time” for a learner
  • Growing Teachers’ Alienation…
a 2 3 third euphoria the internet as the panacea leading to real learning
A. 2. 3. Third Euphoria: The Internet as the Panacea Leading to Real Learning

Hopes:

  • Internet allowing Learning based on:

- Authentic “hands on” questions

- Authentic “hands on” open-ended research

- Collaboration among learners beyond place and time

- Real time interactivity between learners-teachers-experts

- Individual customization and adaptability to various learning styles and needs

- Reflectivity (by easy annotation, storing, retrieving, elaboration..)

a 2 3 third euphoria the internet as the panacea leading to real learning cont
A. 2. 3. Third Euphoria: The Internet as the Panacea Leading to Real Learning (Cont.)

And-

- By ICT simulating the lateral associative modus operandi of the brain

Will radically changes scholastic learning into “true

(active) learning” and thus : revolutionize learning and education

a 2 3 third euphoria the internet as the panacea leading to real learning cont1
A. 2. 3. Third Euphoria: The Internet as the Panacea Leading to Real Learning (Cont.)

Reality:

  • Did not (yet?) Happen

Possible Reasons:

  • “Wait we are just starting”:
  • Schools are not ready (“as long as we don't have a computer for each child it won't work”)
  • Teachers are not ready (“wait until the flood generation leaves”)
a 2 3 third euphoria the internet as the panacea leading to real learning cont2
A. 2. 3. Third Euphoria: The Internet as the Panacea Leading to Real Learning (Cont.)

Possible Reasons (Cont):

  • Technology is immature (“it is still so unintuitive and difficult to manipulate”)…
  • Surfing is preventing linear focused learning (“Butterfly Defect”)
  • Forums and Chats are messy, confusing interactions
  • Structural conflict between standards-oriented policies and the Internet culture
a 2 3 third euphoria the internet as the panacea leading to real learning cont3
A. 2. 3. Third Euphoria: The Internet as the Panacea Leading to Real Learning (Cont.)

Possible Reasons (Cont):

  • Structural conflict between the compelled disciplinary curriculum and the Internet-culture
  • Structural conflict between school-culture and the Internet-Culture
  • Structural conflict between literacy, rationality and the Internet- Culture
slide18

B. 1. Basic Assumptions

1. We have to adapt to ICT in learning:

  • Not because it will automatically raise achievements or reduce gaps
  • Not because it will raise learners motivation and interest
  • Not because in itself it will revolutionize learning
slide19

B. 1. Basic Assumptions (Cont.)

2. We have to adapt ICT to learning

  • Because this is the new way thing are done
  • This is the new language, the new environment for human behavior

3. This requires a radical adaptation

  • It is the radical adaptation of schools to the new world and not the introduction of “computers to the classrooms”
slide20

B. 1. Basic Assumptions (Cont.)

4. We can adapt passively, learning from the rapid and successful adaptation of economic organizations, or:

  • Proactively
b 1 basic assumptions cont
B. 1. Basic Assumptions (Cont.)

5. Proactive Adaptation consists of the:

a. Location of the basic values that should guide us and aims we want to achieve

b. Analysis of the inherent nature of the new ICT environment or praxis

c. Identification of those elements in the new praxis that support the desired aims and values and those that act against them

b 1 basic assumptions cont1
B. 1. Basic Assumptions (Cont.)

c. Formation of the pedagogical plan on the best strategy for optimizing the desired values and aims in the given praxis or, in other terms : the best way for harnessing the new praxis to the realization of the educational aims and values

b 1 basic assumptions cont2
B. 1. Basic Assumptions(Cont.)

6.There is no guarantee whatsoever that passive adaptation will lead to “Paradise Scenario”

  • There is not guarantee whatsoever that proactive adaptation will lead to “Paradise Scenario”

7. But- in the second case the chances are somewhat higher and we have a foundation for mindful approach, criticism and on-going systematic discourse and extent of control

b 1 basic assumptions cont3
B. 1. Basic Assumptions (Cont.)

8. Proactive adaptation should take place on three levels:

  • Policy Making
  • Design of Learning Environments
  • Teaching/Moderating/Tutoring
case study 1 how to use forum discussions to enhance rationality
Case study 1 – how to use Forum discussions to enhance rationality

The Challenge

To mobilize the praxis of ICT communication to desired educational channels

Guiding Value

Enhancement of Rationality

Method

To enhance the standard Forum interface with a special toolbox for structuring the discussion to render it more rational:

  • Logically structured entries
  • Pre-defined relation between entries
  • Embedded discussion rules
  • View of “structured” thread

Link to example

case study 2 how can system ontology encourage mindful approach to learning
Case study 2 – how can system ontology encourage mindful approach to learning

The Challenge

To leave system-ontology of eLearning systems as open as possible, in order to support different learning styles and different teaching methods, and at the same time avoid loosing the effectively of learning, by allowing mere overloading of information qualify as “learning”.

Guiding Value

Encourage mindful teaching and learning

Method

To add a third layer to the common learning-object Process vs. Content ontology:

  • Learning Object must include a stimulus (i.e. content + stimulus)
  • Structuring in the Object level and not only on the process level (e.g. Path)
  • Every content is a potential for learning
  • For mindful learning to take place, the content should be “consumed” in a specific way (as suggested by the stimulus)

Link to example

case study 3 how to turn ict usage experience into a reflective process of self development
Case study 3 – how to turn ICT-usage experience into a reflective process of self-development?

The Challenge

To use ICT as an environment for self-development, based on the notion of learning through reflection on genuine life experiences.

Guiding Values

Self-knowledge, Reflection

Method

Software agents that are constantly monitoring the environment and identifying potential triggers for reflection. The agents are guided by a goal: to present the user with a fact about his/her behavior and offer him a guided reflection session upon an aspect of his personality, habits or abilities.

Link to example

Link to list of reflection sessions

slide29
Details:

- Roni (Aharon) Aviram: roniav@inter.net.il