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teagan-kelly
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Exercise Evaluation

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  1. Exercise Evaluation

  2. Exercise Evaluation • Strength curve similarity

  3. Strength Curve (Kulig et al., 1984) • strength curve – plot of how maximum strength varies as a function of joint angle • strength - the ability of a muscle group to develop torque against an unyielding resistance in a single contraction of unrestricted duration

  4. Mobility Determined by Torque Output Factors that Affect Muscle Torque Output • Force • Moment arm • Point of force application (attachment site) • Angle of force application (muscle insertion angle)

  5. Factors That Affect Force Output • Physiological factors • Cross-sectional area • Fiber type • Neurological factors • Muscle fiber activation • Rate of motor unit activation • Biomechanical factors • Muscle architecture • Force-length relationship • Force-velocity relationship

  6. Humans: 2.6-2.8 mm

  7. Active Component

  8. Passive component

  9. Total Force

  10. 60% 160% Single Joint Muscles 110-120%

  11. Multi Joint Muscles >160% 60%

  12. Mobility Determined by Torque Output Factors that Affect Muscle Torque Output • Force • Moment arm • Point of force application (attachment site) • Angle of force application (muscle insertion angle)

  13. Muscle Attachments • Further from joint is better (theoretically) • Structural constraints negate #1 • Cannot alter attachment sites • Strength differences due, in part, to attachment differences

  14. Muscle Insertion Angle • 90 is better • MIA typically < 45 • MIA not constant through joint ROM, affecting strength through ROM • Cannot alter MIA • Strength differences due, in part, to MIA differences

  15. Understanding Moment Arm Changes Through ROM JA = 90° MIA = 90 ° JA = 45° MIA = 120 ° JA = 30° MIA = 150 ° JA = 150° JA = 120° MIA = 60 ° MIA = 30 °

  16. Understanding Moment Arm Changes Through ROM JA = 90° MIA = 90 ° JA = 45° MIA = 120 ° JA = 30° MIA = 150 ° JA = 150° MIA = 30 ° JA = 120° MIA = 60 °

  17. Understanding Moment Arm Changes Through ROM JA = 90° MIA = 90 ° JA = 45° MIA = 120 ° JA = 30° MIA = 150 ° JA = 150° MIA = 30 ° JA = 120° MIA = 60 °

  18. Biceps Brachii Strength Torque (Nm) 0 90 180 Joint Angle (°) Joint Angle

  19. Brachioradialis Strength Torque (Nm) 0 90 180 Joint Angle (°) Joint Angle

  20. Summary of System Level Rotational Function • Torque output varies across ROM • Variation depends on: • Force-length changes • Moment arm changes • Variation differs across muscles & joints

  21. Varies according to force-length & MIA (moment arm) changes for all muscles in FMG 0 indicates anatomical position

  22. Resistance Muscle 0 indicates anatomical position

  23. Resistance Muscle 0 indicates anatomical position

  24. Resistance Muscle 0 indicates anatomical position

  25. Resistance Muscle 0 indicates anatomical position

  26. Exercise Evaluation • Strength curve similarity • Specificity of muscle roles • Specificity of ROM • Specificity of movement & contraction speed

  27. Summary • Exercise evaluation is important to ensure appropriate physical training, whether for performance enhancement, injury prevention, or injury rehabilitation. • Exercise evaluation should focus on the progressive overload principle and the specificity principle. • The importance of each principle depends on the goal(s) of the exercise program.