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University of Palestine Business and Finance college. Scientific Steps For Making CASE STUDY. Mohammed abu nahla Tariq zimmo Raed al najjar. by Under the supervision of Miss : Rasha atallah. History of the case study.

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University of Palestine Business and Finance college

Scientific Steps For Making CASE STUDY

Mohammed abu nahla

Tariq zimmo

Raed al najjar


Under the supervision of Miss : Rasha atallah

history of the case study
History of the case study
  • As a distinct approach to research, use of the case study originated only in the early 20th century
  • The use of case studies for the creation of new theory in social sciences has been further developed by the sociologists Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss who presented their research method, Grounded theory, in 1967.
  • Case studies have also been used as a teaching method and as part of professional development, especially in business and legal education .
definitions of case study
Definitions of case study
  • A case study is one of several ways of doing research whether it is social science related or even socially related. It is an in-depth investigation/study of a single individual, group, incident, or community.Other ways include experiments, surveys, or analysis of archival information.
case study requirnments
Case Study Requirnments
  • Case selection:
  • Yin (2005) suggested that researchers should decide whether to do single-case or multiple-case studies and chose to keep the case holistic or have embedded sub-cases. This two-by-two combination can produce four basic designs for case studies
  • Three types of information-oriented cases may be distinguished:

1.Extreme or deviant cases

2.Critical cases

3.Paradigmatic cases

Critical case
  • A critical case can be defined as having strategic importance in relation to the general problem. For example, an occupational medicine clinic wanted to investigate whether people working with organic solvents suffered brain damage. Instead of choosing a representative sample among all those enterprises in the clinic’s area that used organic solvents, the clinic strategically located , ‘If it is valid for this case, it is valid for all (or many) cases.’ In its negative form, the generalization would be, ‘If it is not valid for this case, then it is not valid for any (or only few) cases.
Generalizing from case studies
  • The case study is effective for generalizing using the type of test that Karl Popper called falsification, which forms part of critical reflexivity
  • was based on a case study selected by information-
  • oriented sampling and not random sampling.
  • Cases selected based on dimensions of a theory (pattern-matching) or on diversity on a dependent phenomenon (explanation-building).
  • No generalization to a population beyond cases similar to those studied.
  • Conclusions should be phrased in terms of model elimination, not model validation. Numerous alternative theories may be consistent with data gathered from a case study.
  • Case study approaches have difficulty in terms of evaluation of low-probability causal paths in a model as any given case selected for study may fail to display such a path, even when it exists in the larger population of potential cases.
The case study approach is a law-related education teaching strategy which uses real and hypothetical legal cases to help students develop critical thinking skills. In its complete form, it includes the following elements:
  • Identifying the facts of the case;
  • Defining the legal and/or constitutional question;
  • Formulating arguments for both sides of the question;
  • Explaining the court's decision and the reasons of the majority and the dissent; and
  • Evaluating the court's decision and predicting the impact of the court's decision.


Identifying the Facts of the Case
  • Students begin by reading, listening to, or viewing a description of the facts of the case. One useful and efficient method for ensuring that students understand the facts is to put them in pairs. Then ask one student in each pair to summarize the facts.
Another technique involves having students work in groups on the following questions:

What happened in this case?

Who are the people/organizations/companies involved?

What motives could explain why the people involved acted as they did?

Which facts are important?

What facts don't you have that you would like?

Defining the Constitutional and/or Legal Question
  • It is important for students to understand what constitutional and/or legal question the court must address in the case, or it will be difficult for them to understand the implications of the court's decision. Defining constitutional and/or legal questions is often very difficult. In many instances, you may decide simply to give your students the question.
However, if you want students to define the issue themselves, the following four questions is most useful for constitutional cases that involve state action:
  • Who was the actor? (Who did something?)
  • Who was the recipient of the action? (To whom was it done?)
  • What was the action that caused the controversy? (What was done?)
  • What specific part of the Constitution/statute is involved?
  • Once the students have answered these questions, they should develop a question the court must address .
3) Formulating Arguments for Both Sides of the Question
  • One way to begin this step is to have the students identify the values and goals of each side. Rarely is a case strictly about good versus bad. More often, legal cases involve significant conflicts between competing positive values, such as private property rights versus equality
  • Before students learn about how the court decided and its reasons, ask them to predict what they think the court will do and why.
4) Explaining Court's Decision and Reasons
  • The first thing to focus on at this step is the court's answer to the constitutional/legal question's. For example, in Tinker, the Supreme Court ruled that the students' constitutional rights had been violated by the Board of Education. It is also important to discuss what geographical areas will be affected by the decision. If the case was decided by the United Sates Supreme Court, then it will apply to the entire nation. However, few cases are heard by the Supreme Court and most decisions will affect a smaller area.
  • By identifying and evaluating the court's reasons for its decision, students will be able to compare and contrast those reasons with their own.
5) Evaluating a Decision and Predicting Its Impact

The final step in the case study approach involves reacting, often on a very personal level, to the decision of the court. Especially in cases that are significant and controversial, students both want and need the opportunity to discuss what they think about the court’s decision. How does/will the decision affect them and others? Additionally, asking students to predict the impact of court decisions often leads to discussion of actions by other branches of government. Many court cases can be effectively overturned by a change in a statute or policy.