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Chapter 9.2: The Organization of the Executive Branch. Class Notes. Introduction. Bureaucracy= organization that helps the President carry out laws Administration= helps to direct the bureaucracy. Three Parts of the Administration. 1. Executive Office of the President

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Chapter 9.2: The Organization of the Executive Branch

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    1. Chapter 9.2: The Organization of the Executive Branch Class Notes

    2. Introduction • Bureaucracy=organization that helps the President carry out laws • Administration=helps to direct the bureaucracy

    3. Three Parts of the Administration • 1. Executive Office of the President • main job— advise the President on important matters • White House Staff • President’s most trusted advisers • Information and advice on important matters • all hired by the President without Senate approval

    4. Three Parts of the Administration • Vice-President • Constitution gives one job—President of the Senate • Choice of each President the extent of the VP’s role • Becomes President if President dies • Special Advisory Groups • OMB=Office of Management and Budget • decided how much programs will cost, prepares budget • NSC=National Security Council • major role in foreign policy

    5. Three Parts of the Administration • 2. The Executive Departments • 15—do much of the work in carrying out nation’s laws and running government programs • each one helps fulfill one of the President’s duties • Newest Department: Homeland Security • Includes Coast Guard, Immigration and Naturalization Service, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Transportation Security Administration • The Cabinet • President appoints head of each department • all called Secretary except Attorney General • Head of each department is a member of the Cabinet

    6. Three Parts of the Administration • 3. Independent Agencies • Three types: • Executive Agencies • Direct control of the President—NASA, EPA • RegulatoryCommissions • 12 Commissions—make and carry out rules for specific business or economic activity • Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) • Government Corporations • Try to make a profit, too risky/expensive for private business • For example: Post Office

    7. The Civil Service System • President appoints less than 1% of workers in Executive Branch • 1883—Civil Service System began • Government workers, “civil servants,” hired on basis of merit • Tests exist for most jobs • Trained workers stay from one administration to the next

    8. 9.3: Presidents and Power

    9. Introduction • President has freedom to take action to meet national goals. • Negotiate executive agreements with other countries • Executive privilege keep vital information secret • President needs to act quickly in a time of crisis

    10. Examples of Presidential Power • Jefferson and Louisiana Purchase • Very large expenditure • Added new territory to the U.S. • Ruled acceptable—reasonable extension of power to make treaties

    11. Examples of Presidential Power • Truman and the Steel Mills • Steel Workers threatened to strike • Korean War—military needed steel • Truman issued executive order • Secretary of Commerce in charge of mills • Ruled illegal: • Supreme Court ruled that the President does not have the power to take private property even in a national emergency

    12. Examples of Presidential Power • Nixon and Watergate • 1972 break in at Democratic National Headquarters, Watergate Hotel • reporters discovered that members of the White House Staff helped plan the burglary and tried to cover up the events • Congressional Investigation • Nixon had tape recorded all his conversations • Refused to make public, claimed executive privilege • Supreme Court ordered Nixon to turn over tape • Resigned before Congress could impeach