Constitution of Athens. From Cleisthenes to the contemporary constitution. Post-Cleisthenic reforms. Archons: selection by lot from group pre-elected by tribes (less aristocratic); Aeropagus (retired archons) lost powers, therefore lost collective identity;
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From Cleisthenes to the contemporary constitution
Possesses perfect excellence (arete)
Excellence is rule over himself and others (as master of household)
Good ruler is both wise and good
Good man and good citizen do not necessarily coincide;
Good man can be good citizen;
He is most likely to share in “honours of the state”.
Possesses a citizen’s excellence
Relative to the constitution
Obey like a freeman;
Rule like a freeman;
Citizen need not be wise (why?)
Good citizen not necessarily a good man (esp. in democracies!).
How would Athenian and Spartan citizens differ?Good Man/Good Citizen (3.4)
Aristotle, Pol., Book III
Cities determine criteria;
Workers = citizens in extreme democracy
Best if workers excluded (1278a1);
B/c they lack leisure and education to participate in ruling and being ruled;
They may serve as oarsmen!
Rigorous examination process
Two Athenian parents; law on epigamia
Free-born; faking carries heavy penalty;
Included citizens from lowest classes;
No occupational requirement.Aristotle and Athens on Citizenship