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Chapter Seven. Breakfast Foods and Sandwiches. Section 7.1. Dairy Products. What is dairy?. Dairy examples Milk Cheese Butter ???? Fresh dairy items should be stored in a refrigerator at 40°F or below.

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Chapter Seven


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    1. Chapter Seven Breakfast Foods and Sandwiches

    2. Section 7.1 Dairy Products

    3. What is dairy? • Dairy examples • Milk • Cheese • Butter • ???? • Fresh dairy items should be stored in a refrigerator at 40°F or below. • Stored separately, especially ones with strong odors, because they can absorb other flavors quickly.

    4. Milk Products • Can be purchases as: • Whole liquids • Dry • Evaporated • Condensed • Milk is both pasteurized and homogenized. • Pasteurized = heating to destroy harmful bacteria • Homogenized = treated so that milkfat appears uniformly throughout the product (fat broken down)

    5. Classifications of Milk • Classified according to its percentage of fat and milk solids. • The highest quality grade milk can be given is Grade A • Cream = the fatty component of milk (two types) • Heavy • Whipping cream/light cream

    6. Ice Cream • To be labeled “ice cream”, it must contain a certain amount of milkfat. • Vanilla ice cream must contain no less than 10% milkfat • Other flavors must contain at least 8% milkfat • Quality ice cream has a custard base (cream/eggs), melts fast!

    7. Butter and Margarine • Made by mixing cream that contains between 30%-45% milkfat at a high speed. • Clarified butter = means it has been heated to remove milk solids and water. • Margarine = hydrogenated (or whipped) oil (no cholesterol), but it looks, cookies and tastes like butter • Made of various vegetable and animal fats and oil • Also 80% of margarines calories come from fat.

    8. Cheese • Two categories • Unripened/fresh cheese • Cream cheese • Cottage cheese • Mozzarella • Ripened • External molds – Brie, Bleu, Roquefort, Camembert • Internal bacterial – Swiss, Havarti • Processed cheese – pasteurized to prevent it from aging (usually mild), the type of milk determines the cheese’s flavors and texture.

    9. Cheese Categories (page 288)Extra Credit – Using the seven different categories that I gave you, give me a recipes that use the different cheeses? • Fresh cheese – Cottage, Ricotta, Mozzarella, Feta • Semi-soft cheese- Edam, Bel Paese, Fontina, Muenster • Soft Cheese – Brie, Camembert, Boursin • Grating Cheese – Parmesan, Romano • Goat Cheese – Chevre, Pyramide • Hard Cheese – Cheddar, Colby, Swiss • Blue-veined cheese – Gorgonzola, Blue, Stilton

    10. Questions • Why should milk from different containers never be combined? • Why is milk homogenized? • Why is milk pasteurized? • Give an example of ripened and unripened cheese? • Why would you clarify butter?

    11. Sections 7.2 The Versatile Egg

    12. Characteristics of Eggs • Composed of the outer shell, albumen (white), and the yolk • White – consists of protein and water • Yolk – contains protein, fat and lecithin (thickener/emulsifier) • Chalazae – membranes that hold the egg yolk in place

    13. How do you select an EGG? • There are federal grades for shell eggs – Grade AA, A, and B. • Consumers usually purchases Grade AA, or Grade A eggs • Grade B eggs are appropriate for used in menu items that will hide their appearance. • Size of an egg • Young hens produced smaller eggs, which are generally of a better quality than larger eggs • 10 points E.C. tell me 5 different animals that produce eggs?

    14. Egg Sizes SizeMinimum Weight per 12 Jumbo 30oz. Extra Large 27oz. Large 24oz. Medium 21 oz. Small 18oz. Peewee 15oz. How much weight does one large egg usually weigh?

    15. Eggs Continued • Eggs need to be ordered based on characteristics. • Most egg recipes are usually based on a large egg. • What temperature do eggs need to be stored at 40-45°F. • Market forms of eggs. • Fresh (shell eggs) • Frozen • Dried • Egg Substitute

    16. Cooking Eggs • Eggs are cooked several different ways: • Hard cooked eggs(page 296) show the different times – simmered, then put into cold water immediately afterwards • Shirre eggs – cooked in butter, and cream in a ramekin. • Egg must be fresh, because of its appearance • Poached eggs – simmered in water • Ex. Eggs Benedict and Eggs Florentine

    17. Cooking Eggs Continued: • Scrambled eggs – light texture, creamy consistency and delicate flavor • Must be cooked over gentle heat and constantly stirred • Fried Eggs – fresh eggs and fat • Sometimes called fried sunny side up, over easy and basted = eggs are fried and then steamed in a covered pan

    18. Omelets • What is are recipe for omelets? • Omelets are either rolled, flat or souffléed(pg. 298) • Rolled = golden yellow, creamy, moist interior • Flat = can be made individually or in large portions • Souffléed = light, fluffy texture because the egg whites are whipped before cooking • What makes a good omelet?

    19. Soufflés • Quiche = egg custard baked into a crust • Soufflés = made of eggs, rarely served at breakfast because they take time to bake and must be made to order. • Made with a sauce base, whipped egg whites, and flavorings • They are not difficult to make, but timing is everything

    20. Questions • Using the numbers (1) smallest to (6) largest, rank the following Medium Jumbo Peewee Extra Large Small Large • What size eggs are used in most recipes? • What are the three different types of omelets?

    21. 7.3 Breakfast Foods

    22. Breakfast Breads • Breads include • Muffins • Quick breads • English muffins • Bagels • Quick Bread = made with a chemical leavener (baking soda/powder) that allow dough to rise more quickly than yeast. They do not need time to rise before baking. Ex. Muffins, scones and biscuits. • Is Rye bread a quick bread? • 3 Categories • Pour Batter = pancake, waffles • Drop Batter = muffins, quick breads • Soft Dough = scones, biscuits

    23. Pancakes, Crepes, Waffles and French Toast • Pancakes = made with a medium-weight batter, pan-fried on an open, greased griddle • Crepes (Swedish Pancakes) = made from a thin pour batter. • Waffles = medium-weight pour batter similar to pancakes, poured on an iron that creates grid-like holes • French toast = sliced bread dipped in a egg mixture, lightly fried on a lightly greased griddle

    24. Breakfast Meats • Bacon – 70% fat and shrinks a great deal • Sausage – cooked at a low temperature • Ham – precooked, only needs to be heated • Canadian Bacon – boneless pork loin that is cured and smoked • Fish –smoked salmon/trout offered at brunch • Hash – mixture of chopped meats, potatoes and onions.

    25. Breakfast Potatoes • Do you know how to make the Golden Fork’s potato recipe? • Hash browns = grated or chopped potatoes pan-fried to a crispy brown. • Home fries = thickly sliced or large-diced potatoes lightly pan-fried

    26. Cereals • Hot vs. Cold • Hot = (2 types) whole, cracked or flaked cereals (oatmeal) and granular cereals (cornmeal) • Always add cereal slowly, do not boil, cover to prevent dryness • Cold = serve with milk or cream, sugar and fruit.

    27. Breakfast Drinks • Coffee, Tea, Hot Chocolate, Milk and Juice-based drinks • Do you know how much coffee it takes to make 10 cups of coffee? • Coffee should be held at 185°-190°F. • Do not hold for over an hour • Coffee should be served very hot and steaming • To clean run solution of 1 part white vinegar and 4 parts water, followed by running plain cold water through 3 more times • One cup of tea has about half the caffeine contained in a cup of coffee (black tea vs. green tea(Oolong tea)) • Black tea is fermented, dried, flattened sun dried to blacken • Green tea is not fermented, after dried rolled and steamed • Know are fermenting

    28. Questions • What is a mixture of chopped meats, potatoes and onions? • Give me an example of a quick bread. • What helps minimizes shrinkage when cooking bacon? • Give me an example of a breakfast food made from a pour batter. • Which has more caffeine per cup, coffee or tea?

    29. Section 7.4 Sandwiches (Fall into 2 categories: HOT vs. COLD)

    30. Hot Sandwiches • Open-faced sandwiches(covered with a hot topping such as gravy, sauce or cheese) • Hors d’oeuvres = are hot or cold bite-sized finger foods that are served before a meal. Ex. Canapé (cold- unsweetened pastry/bread/toast points, arrange attractively, assemble just before service and use flavorful combinations. Small version of a open-faced cold sandwich) • Grilled sandwiches = buttered on outside of bread and browned ex tuna melt • Deep-fried Sandwiches = dipped in beaten egg, sometimes w/breadcrumbs ex. Monte Cristo • Simple Sandwich = ex. Hot roast beef

    31. Cold Sandwiches • Simple cold sandwich =ex. Submarine sandwich and Hamburgers(2 pieces of bread and filling) • Multidecker sandwich = made with more than two slices of bread w/several fillings ex. Club sandwich (usually 3 slices of bread, cut into triangle) • Open-faced cold sandwich= 1 piece of bread and filling arrange and garnished on top • Tea Sandwich= small cold sandwiches, crust trimmed off and cut into shapes What is an example of a hot and cold sandwich? What are some examples of sandwich filling? How would you make a sandwich easier to eat?

    32. How do you Set up and Prepare Sandwiches in Quantity? • Prepare and assemble ingredients and equipments (mis en place) • Arrange bread slices in row and put spread on each slice • Place fillings on ever other slice • Top filled slices with plain slices • Stack and cut • Wrap and refrigerate

    33. Efficient Sandwich Station • Work Table = big enough to spread out ingredients and do work • Storage facilities = refrigeration equipment for cold ingredients and a steam table for hot ingredients. • Hand tools = spreader, spatula, serrated knife, chef’s knife, cutting board, and power slicer • Portion control equipment – scoops for fillings, portion scale for measuring ingredients • Cooking equipment for hot • Sandwiches = griddles, grills, broilers, deep-fryers and microwave ovens Why is it important to have an efficient station?

    34. Preparing Sandwiches • Bread fresh – delivered daily or store at room temp. • Prepare sandwiches to order • Spreads serve 3 main purposes: • To prevent the bread from soaking up the filling • To add flavor • To add moisture • Flavor butter good at room temp., although mayo is often used instead because it has more flavor • Examples of condiments:Mustard, Horseradish, Ketchup, Pickles, Relish and Olives

    35. Serving Sandwiches • Except for hamburgers and hot dogs, sandwiches should be cut before serving • Easier to hold and eat • More attractive presentation • Display the edges (like we did with stuff french toast) • What are some sandwiches that you would like to make?

    36. Questions • What is the main parts of a sandwich? • List some vegetables commonly used in sandwiches. • Give me an example of each of the following sandwiches. Open-face hot Deep-fried Simple hot Canapé Grilled Simple cold Open-faced cold