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The Problem of Power Consumption in Servers. L. Minas and B. Ellison Intel-Lab In Dr. Dobb’s Journal, May 2009 Prepared and presented by Yan Cai Fall 2009 Green Computing. Motivation. Server energy consumption has increased from 50w to 250w since 2000

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the problem of power consumption in servers

The Problem of Power Consumption in Servers

L. Minas and B. Ellison

Intel-Lab

In Dr. Dobb’s Journal, May 2009

Prepared and presented by Yan Cai

Fall 2009 Green Computing

motivation
Motivation
  • Server energy consumption has increased from 50w to 250w since 2000
  • Energy cost will exceed the server cost if this trend does not change

Source: IDC, Scaramella 2006

outline
Outline
  • Motivation
  • Where heat comes from
  • How cooling is achieved
  • How power is consumed
  • Conclusions
where heat comes from
Where heat comes from
  • Server form factor
  • Server power consumption is affected by server form factor, including
    • the individual configuration,
    • the heat and thermal environment
    • the workload being processed

2U

Pedestal

1U

Blade

where heat comes from5
Where heat comes from
  • The amount of heat, (Q), generated by an integrated circuit is a function of
    • The efficiency of the components' design (e)
    • The technology used in its manufacturing process (t)
    • The frequency and voltage at which it operates (f,v)
  • Over-clocking also generates a great amount of heat
outline6
Outline
  • Motivation
  • Where heat comes from
  • How cooling is achieved
  • How power is consumed
  • Conclusions
how cooling is achieved
How cooling is achieved
  • Two common methods
    • Heat sinks
    • Fans

Natural convection heat sink (Source: Wikipedia, 2008)

outline8
Outline
  • Motivation
  • Where heat comes from
  • How cooling is achieved
  • How power is consumed
  • Conclusions
how power is consumed
How power is consumed

Estimated Average Power Use (W) per Server

Estimated Average Power Use (W) per Server, by Server Class, 2000 to 2006 (Source: Koomey J 2007b Estimating Total Power Consumption by Servers in the US and the World. Oakland, CA: Analytics Press)

Google container Data Center

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zRwPSFpLX8I

total power consumption
Total power consumption
  • Power consumption of a Quadcore Intel Xeon server

Server Power Consumption (Source: Intel Labs, 2008)

total power consumption cont d
Total power consumption (cont’d)
  • Power consumption of components
total power consumption cont d12
Total power consumption (cont’d)
  • Total power consumption
  • Estimation of power consumption

CPU Utilization and Power Consumption (Source: Blackburn 2008)

memory power consumption
Memory power consumption
  • The memory demand is growing in the future, because
    • More processors on chip,
    • Increasing use of virtualization,
    • More memory intensive search applications (Google and Facebook)
  • The memory power consumption is growing in the future
    • The more the memories, the larger the power consumption
    • The faster the memories, the larger the power consumption
memory power consumption cont d
Memory power consumption (cont’d)
  • Memory Power Comparison

RDIMM Memory Power Comparison (Source: Intel Platform Memory Operation, 2007)

memory power consumption cont d15
Memory power consumption (cont’d)
  • Power consumption by vendors and configurations

RDIMM Power Consumption by Vendor and Configuration (Sources: Publicly-available datasheets from each vendor, 2008)

memory power consumption cont d16
Memory power consumption (cont’d)
  • 64GB system power consumption

Future DIMM Power Consumption by Frequency, Configuration, and Capacity (Source: Intel Platform Memory Operation, 2008)

memory power consumption cont d17
Memory power consumption (cont’d)
  • How to reduce memory energy consumption
    • By doing thermal analysis, embedding thermal sensors and throttling

1U Server Architecture (Source: Intel Labs, 2006)

memory power consumption cont d18
Memory power consumption (cont’d)
  • Memory throttling mechanisms
    • Closed loop thermal throttling (CLTT)
      • Closed loop, rely on thermal sensors
    • Open loop throughput throttling (OLTT)
      • Open loop, work based on bandwidth count
  • Memory throttling degrades performance
power supply efficiency loss
Power supply efficiency loss
  • Power supply efficiency vs. utilization level

Server Power Supply Efficiency Test Report (Source: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2004)

storage power consumption
Storage power consumption
  • Average hard disk power consumption for average operations
  • Average hard disk power consumption for IO intensive operations
conclusions
Conclusions
  • High-end servers consume more power, but might be less efficient in terms of power consumption
  • At present, CPU still consumes the most power, compared to other components
  • In the future, memory can consume more power than CPU
  • Considering a significant amount of power loss, the efficiency of power supplies is also very important
  • The power consumption by hard drives is closely related to the workload the server is processing