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GUMS - CONTINUED. Guar Gum. Guar Gum. Galactomannan (Mannose (1-4) + Galactose (1-6) every other Mannose MW 220,000 ± 20,000 Particle size affects viscosity and hydration Cold water swelling - Turbid solutions Pseudoplastic - shear thinning. Guar Gum. Hydration increased by heating

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guar gum3
Guar Gum
  • Galactomannan (Mannose (1-4) + Galactose (1-6) every other Mannose
  • MW 220,000 ± 20,000
  • Particle size affects viscosity and hydration
  • Cold water swelling - Turbid solutions
  • Pseudoplastic - shear thinning
guar gum4
Guar Gum
  • Hydration increased by heating
  • High water binding
  • High viscosity form - up to 100,000 CP
  • Low viscosity from - up to 10,000 CP
  • Modifies properties when used with:
    • Carrageenan
    • Xanthan
guar gum5
Guar Gum
  • Properties of different grades of Guar Gum
  • Grade Cold Vis. Hydration Rate Dispersability
  • Coarse 2,700 Slow Excellent
  • Medium 3,800 Moderate Excellent
  • Fine 4,000 Fast Fair
  • Powder 4,300 V. Fast Poor
food uses
Food Uses

Ice cream

prevents ice crystal formation,

slows meltdown,

improves heat shock resistance

Salad dressing

viscosity

Cheese

improves spreading

locust bean gum
Locust Bean Gum
  • Galactomannan (D-Mannose (1-4) with Galactose (1-6) every 4th mannose
  • Molecular weight 330,000 ±30,000
  • Neutral - relatively unaffected by ions, pH.
  • Not soluble in cold water
  • Fully hydrated if heated 10 minutes at 80° C
  • Solutions are cloudy, off-white
  • Pseudoplastic - shear thinning, zero yield value
  • Modify properties of
    • Carrageenan
    • Xanthan Gum
gum arabic acacia11
Gum Arabic (Acacia)
  • Highly branched with b-Galactose backbone
  • Molecular weight 250,000 - 750,000
  • Water soluble, fat insoluble but affinity for fat
  • Low viscosity gum
  • Viscosity affected by pH and salts
  • Food uses:
    • Stabilizer for flavor emulsions
    • Encapsulated flavors
    • Water binding
    • Inhibit sugar crystallization
gum tragacanth
Gum Tragacanth
  • Polymer of Galacturonic Acid + Galactose + Galactose + Arabinose + xylose
  • Two components
    • 70% Bassorine - swelling
    • 30% Tragacanth - cold water soluble
  • High viscosity (varies with grade) 600 -4,000 CP at 1%
  • Acid stable
  • High cost
gum tragacanth13
Gum Tragacanth
  • Food uses include:
    • Salad dressing (emulsifier + thickener)
    • Pickle relish (Increases drained weight)
    • Milkshake (reduce calories, thickener)
    • Pulpy beverages (stabilize solids - enhanced by Gum Arabic)
    • Ice Cream
  • Essentially eliminated from the US marketplace by Xanthan
karaya
Karaya
  • Introduced as a Tragacanth substitute
  • Molecular weight about 950,000
  • Acetylated Galacturonic acid + Rhamnose + Galactose
  • Swells in aqueous environments
  • Used as adhesive
  • Food Uses include:
  • Powdered doughnuts
  • French dressing
  • Ice pops (prevents ice crystals, binding of free water) 0.2%
  • Cheese spread (improves spreading)
  • Ground meats
  • Meringues
slide15
Agar
  • From seaweed
  • Galactan
  • Insoluble in cold water
  • 1.5% gel doesn't melt below 85° C
  • Temperature reversible gels
  • Used for gels in confectionery
  • High temperature tolerant gels
algin and alginates
Algin and Alginates
  • Polymers of Mannuronic and Galacturonic acids varying widely in ratios of the two acids
  • Viscosity of 1% solution ranges from 10 to 2,000 CP as a function of molecular weight and calcium ion content
  • Precipitates below pH 3.0
  • Degrades above pH 6.5
  • Forms gels with calcium ions - 0.5 to 1.0% calcium
  • Propylene glycol derivative improves stability to calcium and acid
  • Food functionality includes:
    • Water binding
    • Gelling
    • Emulsifying
    • Stabilizing
propylene glycol alginate
Propylene Glycol Alginate
  • Precipitate at low pH
  • Interaction with calcium ions
  • Some interaction with fat
  • "Slimy" mouthfeel can substitute for fat
  • Good foam stabilizer
alginate gels
Alginate Gels
  • Extrude into calcium bath
  • Use sodium alginate with a sparingly soluble calcium salt
  • Regulate calcium availability by regulating pH, sequesterant
  • Too much calcium gives grainy gels
  • Too slow release gives weak gels
carrageenan
Carrageenan
  • Galactose backbone
  • Ester sulfate gives negative charge
  • Gels with potassium (Kappa)
  • Gels with calcium (Iota)
  • Non-gelling (Lambda)
  • Good stabilizer for milk proteins
  • Suspender for chocolate in milk
  • Milk gels with TSPP
  • Part of ice cream stabilizer mix
  • Water gels
comparisons of carrageenans
Comparisons of Carrageenans
  • PropertyKappa Iota Lambda
  • Solubility
  • 20° C water no no yes 
  • 80° C milk yes yes yes 
  • 20° C milk no no thickens      
  • Gelation
  • With addition of: K+ Ca++ None     
  • Stability
  • Freeze – thaw no yes yes 
  • pH > 5 stable stable stable 
  • Syneresis yes no no 
  • Salt tolerance poor good good
carrageenans
Carrageenans
  • Kappa
  • Lambda
protein carrageenan interactions
Protein - Carrageenan Interactions
  • Protein with a negative charge
  • Protein with a positive charge
typical dairy applications of carrageenan
Typical Dairy Applications of Carrageenan
  • Typical Dairy Applications of Carrageenan
  • Milk Gels
  • Cooked flans or custards
    • Gelation K, K + I 0.20 - 0.30
  • Cooked prepared custards
    • Thickening  (with TSPP)
    • Gelation K, I, L 0.20 - 0.30
  • Pudding & Pie Fillings
  • Dry mix cooked with milk
    • Level starch gelatinization K0.10 - 0.20
  • Ready-to-eat
    • Syneresis control, bodying I0.10 - 0.20
typical dairy applications of carrageenan24
Typical Dairy Applications of Carrageenan
  • Whipped products
    • Whipped cream Stabilize overrun L0.05 - 0.15 
    • Aerosol whipped cream
      • Stabilize overrun & emulsion K0.02 - 0.05
  • Cold prepared Milks
    • Instant Breakfast
      • Suspension, bodying agent L0.10 - 0.20
    • Shakes
      • Suspension, bodying, overrun L0.10 - 0.20
processed euchema seaweed
Processed Euchema Seaweed
  • Also known as PES in JECFA
  • A crude “carrageenan” made by treating seaweed with NaOH instead of extraction and purification.
  • Contains cell walls and may be brown
  • Used primarily in pet foods.
xanthan
Xanthan
  • Backbone same as cellulose (1-4 Glucose)
  • Trisaccharide side chain at 3 position of alternating glucose monomer units.
  • Acid groups are b-D-Glucuronic acid and pyruvic acid on 1/2 of terminal mannose units.
  • High degree of interaction between chains. Molecular weight about 15 million.
  • Cold and hot water soluble
  • High viscosity at low concentration
  • Strongly pseudoplastic
  • Properties affected by ions
  • Freeze stable
  • Retort unstable - improved by 0.1% NaCl.
gellan
Gellan
  • Produced by Pseudomonas elodea
  • Composed of 2 b-Glucose units + b-Glucuronic Acid + Rhamnose
  • Molecular Weight 1,000,000
  • Insoluble in cold water
  • Gels with heat and Calcium
  • Typical use level 0.1 - 0.35%
  • Hard Gels
  • More tender gels with added Locust Bean or Xanthan
  • Fluid Gels Sworn et al. 1995. Gellan gum fluid gels. Food Hydrocolloids 9, 265-271.
pectins
Pectins
  • Unbranched polymers of 200 - 1,000 Galactose units, linked b 1-4 Glucosidic bonds
  • Degree of esterification controls setting rate
  • >50% High Ester Pectins (HM)
  • <50% Low Ester Pectins (LM)
  • 70 - 85% = Rapid Set
  • 44 - 65% = Slow Set
  • Calcium required to gel LM Pectins
  • Amidated LM Pectins used to gel natural fruit preserves
  • High ester (HM) Pectins stabilize sour milk drinks - react with casein
  • Low ester (LM) Pectins used for milk gels
carboxymethyl cellulose cmc also cellulose gum
Carboxymethyl Cellulose CMCalso Cellulose Gum
  • Not all CMC is the same
  • 30 producers make over 300 types of CMC
  • Anhydroglucose polymer with 100 to 3,500 units (Degree of polymerization = DP)
  • Degree of carboxymethyl substitution ranges from 0.4 to 1.2 /unit Dilute solutions have pH about 7.0 with acid group ionized (free acid form at pH < 3.0)
  • CMC has broad food usage - limited in part by labeling requirements in some locations.