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The Earth’s Spheres. By: Mr. Meringolo. What is the Earth system?. The Earth system is all the matter, energy, and processes that occur within the Earth’s boundary.

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the earth s spheres

The Earth’s Spheres

By: Mr. Meringolo

what is the earth system
What is the Earth system?
  • The Earth system is all the matter, energy, and processes that occur within the Earth’s boundary.
  • The Earth is made up of nonliving things such as rocks, air, and water as well as living things such as trees, animals, and people.

The Earth system can be divided into five main parts known as the geosphere, the hydrosphere, the cryosphere, the atmosphere and the biosphere

the geosphere
The Geosphere
  • The geosphere is the mostly solid, rocky part of Earth. It extends from the center to the surface of Earth.
  • The geosphere is divided into three layers: the crust, the mantle, and the core
the layers of the geosphere
The Layers of the Geosphere
  • The Crust is the thin, outermost layer of the geosphere.

The Crust is divided into plates.

Oceanic Crust-Crust beneath the oceans ,5 to 10 km thick

Continental Crust- 15 – 75 km thick, make up continents

  • The Mantle lies just beneath the crust and is about 2,900 km thick. Movements in this layer move the plates of the crust.
  • The Core -central part of the earth

with a radius of 3,400 km.

Made of Iron and nickel

the hydrosphere
The Hydrosphere
  • The hydrosphere is the part of Earth that is liquid water.
  • Includes the water in lakes, rivers, marshes, clouds, rain, and even water found underground.
  • Oceans cover 71 percent of the earths surface
  • 97 percent of all water on Earth is saltwater.
the c ryosphere
The Cryosphere
  • The Cryosphereis made up of all the frozen water on Earth
  • Includes all the snow, ice, sea ice, glaciers, ice shelves, icebergs, and the frozen ground.
  • Most of the frozen water on Earth is found in the ice caps in Antarctica and in the Arctic.
  • Amount of frozen water changes

with seasons and play an important

role in climate and species survival.

the atmosphere
The Atmosphere
  • The mixture of mostly invisible gases that surround the Earth belong to the atmosphere. The atmosphere is mostly Nitrogen (78%) and Oxygen (21%) with the remaining 1% made of many other gases.
  • The atmosphere traps some energy from sun ray’s, absorb and reflect harmful UV

rays, and help burn debris

from outer space.

the biosphere
The Biosphere
  • The Biosphere is made up of living things and the areas of Earth where they are found.