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Supporting vocabulary development in secondary school learners with language impairments: Rationale and realities. Marysia Nash and Gill Earl NHS Lothian . Who has vocabulary deficits? Primary language Impairments ASD MLD others. vocabulary deficits persist and may ‘worsen’

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Supporting vocabulary development in secondary school learners with language impairments: Rationale and realities


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slide1

Supporting vocabulary development in secondary school learners with language impairments: Rationale and realities

Marysia Nash and Gill Earl

NHS Lothian

vocabulary deficits
Who has vocabulary deficits?

Primary language Impairments

ASD

MLD

others

vocabulary deficits persist and may ‘worsen’

Haynes and Naidoo (1991).

Stothard et al 1998

Vocabulary deficits
young people with vocabulary deficits
Word learning difficulties

Incidental learning and from explicit teaching

Oetting et al. (1995).

Nash and Donaldson (2005)

Semantic and phonological deficits

McGregor, et al. (2002)

Nash and Donaldson (2005)

The Matthew effect

Compounded by poor literacy

Young people with vocabulary deficits
vocabulary and the curriculum
Vocabulary and the Curriculum
  • “Almost every educational skill presupposes the use of language and some language skills such as vocabulary level are associated with later educational achievement ”
  • Wells 1986
slide5

Demands for vocabulary knowledge and acquisition

At first slaves worked on plantationsproducing sugar, coffee, rice cotton and tobacco. The British also decided to use slaves in their North American colonies, and the first group arrived at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619.

Originally Black slaves were to be indentured servants (as some whites were) who, if they worked hard, could be freed after a few years, and given land.

As the number of plantations grew, more slaves were needed and a ‘triangular trade’developed.

In the late 1700s, however, the Colonies broke away from Britain. Northern areas abolished slavery, but in the South, where cotton was ‘King’, it became more important than ever.

demands for vocabulary knowledge and acquisition
Terminology

Tropical , Tundra, Mediterranean, Arctic ……..etc

Other words

Lush, delicate, cascades, canopy, steamy, slung , insulated, rapid, mottled, expanse, barren…………………50 + ‘ hard words’

Demands for vocabulary knowledge and acquisition
slide7
By considering the type of text I am creating I can select ideas and relevant information, organise these in a logical sequence and use words which will be interesting and/or useful for others.

ACE Draft outcomes Literacy and EnglishWriting

Expectations of vocabulary when writing

selecting an approach rationale and realities
Support the characteristics of the ‘impaired’ learner

Instruction relevant to curriculum demands

Word choice

Attempts to address magnitude of the challenge

Inclusive

Wide reading

Explicit teaching (robust vocabulary instruction)

Independent word learning

Word awareness

Graves 2000

Selecting an approach: rationale and realities
in practice
In practice

Explicit teaching of vocabulary:

Text led

Criteria for word selection

Student-friendly definition

Rich information

Repeated exposures

Revision

Independent word-learning skills:

Structural analysis

&

Use of context

robust vocabulary instruction text led word selection
icy

vicious

bundle

tilted

smug

hissed

braced

jolted

Robust vocabulary instructionText led: Word selection:
slide11

Collins English Dictionary (online):

  • “to cause (someone) to go, esp. roughly or
  • unceremoniously, she bundled them
  • unceremoniously out into the garden”

Visual support:

Student-friendly definition:

(Collins COBUILD English Dictionary)

  • “If someone is bundled somewhere, someone pushes them there in a rough and hurried way.”
slide12
A metal bar ______ into the spokesof my bike was all it took to send me flying.  And as I soared through space, I caught sight of his ___ blue eyes, and the _______ expression on his face.  I ______ myself, but when crashed into the hard concrete of the footpath all the air was ______ out of my lungs.  I gasped and tried not to _______.  I looked up to see his body ______ over me. "Revenge", he ______, his face looking pleased and ____.  "Hopefully next time you think of getting me in trouble, you'll think again."  Without saying anything I staggered to me feet. He grabbed me roughly and _____ me against the wall. “Or else!” he grunted.

Rich information: Multiple Contexts and Repeated Exposures:

icy

vicious

bundle

tilted

smug

hissed

braced

jolted

true or false
True or False?

An argument that is loud and fierce can be described as blazing.

A fire that has almost gone out cannot be described as blazing.

If someone is bundled into the car, they get in slowly and carefully.

If you had a vice like grip on the dog’s lead, he will probably run away.

Having a brace on your teeth helps to keep them straight.

Something that is braced is very likely to fall down.

Rich information: Questioning:

independent word learning
Teaching a child to fish

Use of context clues

Deconstructing words

Roots and affixes

Particularly most common prefixes

Independent word learning
benefits for the learner
Robust vocabulary instruction

Independent word learning

develops semantic representations

with adaptation can facilitate acquisition of phonological representation

orthography may support word learning

Ricketts et al (2008)

Potential to support incidental learning

Benefits for the learner
  • Can be inclusive and relevant to curriculum demands
for the slt
Robust vocabulary instruction and independent word learning

can be embedded in across the curriculum

Ensures instruction of relevant words

partly address the magnitude of the task

Addresses a range of learners

Teacher friendly

For the SLT
measuring effectiveness in schools
Measuring effectiveness in schools

Survey/Interview/Focus Group re.

Teacher attitude

Teacher knowledge, e.g. of teaching methods

Student attitude

Student knowledge, e.g. of vocabulary needs

(Video) Observation of

Student learning behaviour /skills

Teacher practice (using observation and analysis)

Formal assessment of

Impact on learning, e.g. reading comprehension or vocabulary knowledge

(IOE London: Systematic Review)

and if in any doubt of the power of appropriate vocabulary usage
The lift is being fixed for the next day. During that time we regret you will be unbearable

Choose twin bed or marriage size; we regret no king kong size

And if in any doubt of the power of appropriate vocabulary usage

Thank you !

references
References
  • Haynes, C. P. A. and S. Naidoo (1991). Children with specific and language impairment. London, Mac Keith Press.
  • McGregor, K. K., R. M. Newman, et al. (2002). "Semantic representation and naming in children with specific language impairment." Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research45: 998-1014.
  • Nash, M. and M. L. Donaldson (2005). "Word Learning in Children with Vocabulary Deficits." Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research48(April): 439-459.
  • Oetting, J. B., M. L. Rice, et al. (1995). "Quick Incidental Learning (QUIL) of Words by School-Age Children With and Without SLI." Journal of Speech and Hearing Research.38: 434-445.
  • Stothard, S. E., et al. (1998). "Language Impaired Pre-schoolers: A Follow-Up into Adolescence." Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research41(4107-418).