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Understanding Windows
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  1. Understanding Windows Chapter 13

  2. Overview • In this chapter, you will learn to • Explain the Windows interface • Identify the features and characteristics of Windows 2000 and Windows XP • Describe the current versions of Windows

  3. CompTIA A+Essentials Essentials

  4. All versions share common look and feel Utilities same or similar GUI works the same Command-line interface has similar commands Master one, and you’re well on your way to mastering them all Windows Interface

  5. User Interface • Login • Every version of Windows supports multiple users • Requiring a user login increases security • Desktop • Primary interface to the computer

  6. User Interface • Taskbar and Start menu • Runs along the bottom of the desktop and includes up to four sections • Start menu allows access to the installed programs • System tray shows programs running in the background • Quick Launch enables you to launch often-used programs with a single click

  7. User Interface • My Computer • Provides access to drives, folders, and files • Customizable: Can display different views, show hidden files, hide file extensions, and more

  8. User Interface • Windows Explorer • Another utility for accessing drives, folders, and files • My Documents • My Pictures, My Music, My Videos

  9. User Interface • Recycle Bin • Deleted files sent to Recycle Bin • Can retrieve them if desired • Size can be adjusted • My Network Places • Shows the current network connections available

  10. Hot Keys • Working with text • Function keys

  11. Hot Keys • Popular hot keys

  12. Hot Keys • Windows key shortcuts

  13. Tech Utilities: Right-Click • Also called: • Alt menu • Context menu • Works almost everywhere • Properties selection very common

  14. Tech Utilities: Control Panel • Handles maintenance, upgrade, and configuration aspects of Windows • Start|Settings|Control Panel • Contains many mini-programs, called applets • Any icon in the Control Panel is a file with a CPL extension • If Control Panel won’t start, one of these is probably corrupt—rename each one until you find the bad one

  15. Tech Utilities: Control Panel • Category view • Classic view

  16. Tech Utilities: Device Manager • Device Manager • Used to configure hardware and drivers • Devices are organized in special groups called types • Access through • System applet in Control Panel • Properties of My Computer • -Break • Computer Management

  17. Tech Utilities: Device Manager • Device Manager • Used to configure hardware and drivers • Access through • System applet in Control Panel • Properties of My Computer • -Break • Computer Management

  18. Tech Utilities: Device Manager • Device Manager • Devices are organized in special groups called types • Problems identified with red “X” or a yellow exclamation point • Can also update drivers here

  19. Tech Utilities: System Tools • System Tools is a collection of tech utilities found on the Start menu • Start | Programs| Accessories| System Tools

  20. Tech Utilities: Command Line • Command line • Start | Run| cmd • Not DOS • DOS is dead, but CLI thrives

  21. IT Technician CompTIA A+Technician IT Technician Microsoft Management Console

  22. Tech Utilities: MMC • Microsoft Management Console(MMC) • Shell program - holds utilities called snap-ins • Start | Run | mmc • Starts with blank console • Add snap-ins: File | Add/Remove Snap-ins| Add • Save the new customized console you created

  23. Tech Utilities: Administrative Tools • Administrative Tools • A folder that holds many predefined MMC consoles built by Microsoft • Control Panel | Administrative Tools • The three most used Administrative Tools are • Computer Management • Event Viewer • Performance

  24. Tech Utilities: Computer Management • Computer Management • A predefined MMC that pulls together snap-ins related to many computer management options

  25. Tech Utilities: Event Viewer • Event Viewer • Keeps track of events that happen with your computer

  26. Tech Utilities: Performance • Performance • System Monitor shows real-time data • Performance Logs and Alerts—captured data

  27. Services • Services • Separate programs that handle functions in Windows • Double-click any service to examine its properties and settings • Services start • Automatically • Manually • May be disabled

  28. OS Folders • System folder • Folder where the OS files were installed • %systemroot% • Typically C:\Windows in XP, C:\Winnt in 2000

  29. Other Important Folders • C:\Program Files • C:\Documents and Settings • C:\WINNT • C:\WINNT\FONTS • C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32

  30. What Is the Registry? • Registry • A unified database • Stores all hardware and software configuration info for the local computer • Data stored in Registry files called hives • In %SystemRoot%\System32\Config folder • Rarely modify directly • Instead modify via Control Panel or other administrative tools

  31. Registry Editors • Regedit • Older version—Allowed easy searches • Regedt32 • Newer version—better for modifying Registry • Combined version in XP and Vista • When using the Registry Editors, be very careful! • Does not recognize syntax or semantic errors • May prevent your operating system from loading


  33. Registry Editors • REGEDIT in Windows 2000 • Regedt32 in Windows 2000

  34. Combined in XP • Typing Regedit or Regedt32 launches same program in XP

  35. Registry Components

  36. Swap File or Page File • All versions of Windows use virtual memory • Also known as RAM cache • Windows swap files are used to implement virtual memory • Allows the system to work as though it has more memory than it does • Uses drive for extra memory

  37. Virtual Memory • More programsMore RAM • At some pointno more physical RAM available

  38. Virtual Memory • Programs swapped outof RAM to hard drive • New programs can nowbe run in physical RAM

  39. Features and Characteristics of Windows NT/2000/XP

  40. OS Organization • Windows operating system separated into different components • The subsystems • The NT Executive • The drivers

  41. Robust, scalable, cross-platform • Robust • Separates processes and runs them in different subsystems • One program bug doesn’t affect others • Cross-platform • Uses object-oriented approach • Designed to support multiple platforms by using HAL • Abstracts (separates) differences in hardware • Scalable • Supports symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) • Allows support for up to 32 CPUs

  42. NT File System (NTFS) • Robust and powerful • Long filenames containing up to 255 characters • Redundancy • Advanced FAT called the master file table (MFT) • Backward-compatible with DOS and Windows 9x • Recoverability • Uses transaction logging to survive accidental shutdowns • Security • Allows file and folder security

  43. NTFS Security Overview • Implemented with • Users, groups, permissions • Files and folders can be restricted • Permissions granted to user or group • User can gain access based on own user account • User can gain access based on group membership

  44. NTFS Security • Accounts • Every user has an account • Without an account, can’t log on • Every Windows NT/2000 PC has an Administrator account that has full access to everything

  45. NTFS Security • Groups • A group is a collection of user accounts that share the same access capabilities • Assign access to a group and then put users into the group • Users will inherit the access assigned to the group • Windows provides several built-in groups

  46. Administrators May perform all administrative tasks on the computer Backup Operators May use Windows Backup Guests May perform only specific tasks that are granted Guest account is a member Power Users May create and modify local user accounts and share resources on the local computer Replicator Supports file replication in a domain Users May perform only tasks specifically assigned Local user accounts that are created become members Everyone Built-in Groups

  47. NTFS Permissions • NTFS permissions in 2000/XP • Lists users and groups granted access to a file or folder • Lists the specific level of access allowed • Available only on volumes formatted as NTFS (Security tab) • NTFS security is effective whether a user • Gains access at the computer • Gains access over the network

  48. NTFS Special Permissions • Ownership • When you create a new file or folder you become the owner • Owners have full control • Owners can change permissions • Take Ownership permission • Enables a user to take ownership of a file or folder • Administrator account can take ownership of any files • Change Permission • Can give or take away permissions for other accounts

  49. NTFS Standard Permissions • Folder permissions • Apply to folders • File permissions • Apply to files

  50. NTFS Folder Permissions • Full Control • Enables you to do anything you want • To deny all access, deny Full Control • Modify • Cannot delete files or subfolders but may modify them • Read & Execute • Enables read files and run programs