Organizational Text Structures - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. Organizational Text Structures Why the need for organizational text structures? To help the reader understand the information presented. Consider your purpose when recognizing a text structure

  2. External Text Structures External text structures are found outside the main body of text. They include: • Italics • Bold • Underlining • Indentation • Sidebars • Pictures and graphics • Headings and subheadings • Footnotes

  3. Internal Text StructuresInternal text structure is how the main body of the text is organized. It will be organized a certain way depending on its purpose. There are 7 different internal structures: • Cause and Effect • Comparison and Contrast • Enumeration/Listing • Sequential or Chronological • Concept/Definition • Generalization • Process

  4. Sequential/Chronological • It tells the order of facts, events, or concepts • Signal words/phrases: • Today * Next • Meanwhile • First • Now • Not long ago • Finally Examples: timelines, records of history events

  5. Comparison and Contrast • Tells how facts, people, and events and concepts are similar and different • Signal words/phrases: • Similarly • On the other hand • However • Yet • In spite of

  6. Cause and Effect • Tells how fact, events, people, concepts happen or exist because of other facts • Signal words/phrases: • As a result of • Consequently • So that • Because of • Since Examples: history books, science books

  7. Enumeration/Listing • Tells a listing of facts and events in no special order • Signal words/phrases: • Also • Another • Several • First Examples: grocery list, listing of examples

  8. Concept/Definition • Tells the explanation or description of a concept or topic by using synonyms and signal words • Signal words/phrases: • Refers to • Thus • In other words • Described as • Equals Example: textbooks, encyclopedias

  9. Generalization • A statement about a whole group. Could be too broad and not based on fact. Often the word "all" will make a generalization untrue ."All trees lose their leaves in the fall.” • Signal words/phrases: • Always • In fact Examples: editorials, advertising

  10. Process • Tells the procedure or process for how something is done/created • Signal words/phrases: • Begins with • In order to Examples: cookbooks, how-to books, science textbooks