The Toulmin Model. A tool for diagramming “informal” arguments. Stephen Toulmin.
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A tool for diagramming
(warrant: generalization; most or all Golden Retrievers are friendly)
The Dodgers are likely to win the ballgame tonight
They are playing
(unstated) Generalization: The home team enjoys an advantage in baseball
It was nominated for 10 Academy Awards
“Slumdog Millionaire” is a wonderful movie.
(unstated) Sign: a movie’s greatness can be measured in the number of Oscar nominations it receives
Biff was probably in a fight
He has a black eye
(unstated) Sign: A black eye is a reliable indicator that a person has been in a fight
If you surf at Huntington Beach right after it rains you risk getting a bacterial infection
Runoff from the rain washes bacteria into the ocean
(unstated) Cause-effect: bacteria in the water causes surfers to get ill.