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Ohio benchmark
Ohio Benchmark

  • The era of the exploration and colonization of the Americas by Europeans marked the beginning of the recorded history of what is now the United States. This period also marked the beginning of global trade and cultural exchanges that would alter the lives of people around the world. This era would significantly affect the range of personal freedom among individuals and groups in the Americas. The growing conflicts between American Indian populations and European colonists, and the expansion of the African slave trade provide contrasts to the emerging development of self-rule.

The native americans

The Native Americans

"So live your life that the fear of death can never enter your heart. Trouble no one about their religion; respect others in their view, and demand that they respect yours. Love your life, perfect your life, beautify all things in your life. Seek to make your life long and its purpose in the service of your people. Prepare a noble death song for the day when you go over the great divide. Always give a word or a sign of salute when meeting or passing a

friend, even a stranger, when in a lonely place. Show respect to all people and grovel to none. When you arise in the morning give thanks for the food and for the joy of living. If you see no reason for giving thanks, the fault lies only in yourself. Abuse no one and no thing, for abuse turns the wise ones to fools and robs the spirit of its vision. When it comes your time to die, be not like those whose hearts are filled with the fear of death, so that when their time comes they weep and pray for a little more time to live their lives over again in a different way. Sing your death song and die like a hero going home." Chief Tecumseh, Shawnee Nation

Which native american tribe lived near where we are today
Which Native American Tribe lived near where we are today?

  • Cherokee

  • Iroquois

  • Manica

  • Catawba

  • Shawnee


American history
American History….

  • Part of what we need to know about history is that we are not the original people to live in North America.

  • The Native Americans are key to how our culture has evolved over time, and in many cases we would not have survived if not for their kindness.

  • There are many different tribes of Native Americans to learn about..


  • Since earliest contact with European explorers in the 1500’s, the Cherokee Nation has been identified as one of the most advanced among Native American tribes.

  • Cherokee culture thrived for thousands of years in the southeastern United States before European contact.

  • After contact, Cherokee society and culture continued to develop, progressing with acquisitions from European settlers.

  • Soon, we had shaped a bicultural government and a society that matched the most ‘civilized’ of the time.

  • Watch a Cherokee Native American speak, and talking about his history!


Iroquois Confederacy was originally composed of five related families or nations of Indians, in the present State of New York. These were called respectively, Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. Tradition says the confederacy was founded by Hiawatha, the incarnation of wisdom, at about the beginning of the fifteenth century. He came from his celestial home and dwelt with the Onondagas, where he taught the related tribes the knowledge of good living. Fierce warriors approached from the north, slaying everything human in their path


They lived in villages of circular, bark-covered houses, and dedicated temple structures were used for public gatherings and religious ceremonies. Agriculture, for which men and women both shared responsibility, provided at least two crops each year and was heavily supplemented by hunting and fishing. The Iroquois called the Catawba "flatheads" because they, as well as many of the other Siouan-speaking tribes of the area, practiced forehead flattening of males infants. Besides the Iroquois, traditional Catawba enemies included the Cherokee, Shawnee, Delaware, and several members of the Great Lakes Algonquin allied with the French. Catawba warriors had a fearsome reputation and an appearance to match: ponytail hairstyle with a distinctive war paint pattern of one eye in a black circle, the other in a white circle and remainder of the face painted black. Coupled with their flattened foreheads, some of their enemies must have died from sheer fright.


  • The Shawnee considered the Delaware as their "grandfathers" and the source of all Algonquin tribes.

  • They also shared an oral tradition with the Kickapoo that they were once members of the same tribe. Identical language supports this oral history, and since the Kickapoo are known to have originally lived in northeast Ohio prior to contact, it can safely be presumed that the Shawnee name of "southerner" means they lived somewhere immediately south of the Kickapoo.

  • The loss of their homeland has given the Shawnee the reputation of being wanderers, but this was by necessity, not choice.

  • The Shawnee have always maintained a strong sense of tribal identity, but this produced very little central political organization.

  • During their dispersal, each of their five divisions functioned as an almost autonomous unit.

Misconceptions are everywhere
Misconceptions are everywhere!

  • There are many aspects of Native Americans that we know…and they are actually very false.

  • Common Misconceptions of the Native American Indians