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ESTONIAN NATIONAL DEFENCE COLLEGE. Military Terminology in the Estonian Language. How my topic fits into the conference theme?. Terminology and terms are an inseparable and integral part of any specialized language and specialty training as terms connect us to the objects in the real world.

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ESTONIAN NATIONAL DEFENCE COLLEGE

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

slide2

Military Terminology in the Estonian Language

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

how my topic fits into the conference theme
How my topic fitsinto the conference theme?

Terminology and terms are an inseparable and integral part of any specialized language and specialty training as terms connect us to the objects in the real world.

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

military terminology in the estonian language
Military terminologyin the Estonian language
  • During the Soviet occupation (1940-1991), Estonia did not have any army or armed forces, and consequently there was no military terminology in the Estonian language.
  • Up to the beginning of the 1990s, military terminology was influenced mostly by the Russian language, while since then, military terminology has come mostly from English.

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

terminology confusion
Terminology confusion
  • concept clusters:

engagement area - killing zone

  • imitating other languages:

noncombatant – nonkombatant

  • translation loans:

tactical operation – taktikaline operatsioon

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

what is a term
What is a term?
  • according to Cabré, concepts are mentally independent and exist before they are named, and it’s only through the standardization of terms that the concepts that mostly do not have a rigidly set border obtain artificially set limits (1999:42-43).

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

what are the main characteristics of a term
What are the main characteristicsof a term?
  • transparency and clarity;
  • appropriateness;
  • linguistic economy;
  • monosemy or carrying one meaning;
  • preference of native language;
  • grammatical aspects - derivability and correctness.

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

transparency and clarity
Transparency and clarity

Key element or key characteristics

of the concept it signifies:

  • deploy – siirma (transplant)
  • engagement – kokkupõrge (clash, crash, collision)

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

appropriateness
Appropriateness
  • simulation – simulatsioon
  • simulator – simulaator

The 1st meaning of the Estonian word simuleerima is to pretend

  • imitatsioon (copy, reproduction) or

matke (imitation, copy)

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

linguistic economy
Linguistic economy
  • the term should be as short as possible; the more the term is used the shorter it should be.
  • sometimes Estonian is more economical than English: line of departure – lähtejoon

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

monosemy or carrying one meaning
Monosemy or carrying one meaning
  • synonyms can take on different meanings over time:

capability: võime – (ability/capability), võimekus – (capability)

  • they are sometimes defined as having different meanings and as if designating different concepts.

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

preference for native language
Preference for native language
  • mission – missioon, sõjaline operatsioon (military operation), or operatsioon, välisteenistus (service abroad), depending on the context also ülesanne (task) etc.
  • canalize - kanaliseerima vs sängitama, the borrowed term kanaliseerima should be preferred, as the 1st meaning of sängitama is to bury.

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

present terminology standardization 1
Present terminologystandardization 1
  • branch of the armed forces (navy, air force, land force) – põhiväeliik (main branch of the armed forces)
  • arm of service (artillery, signals etc.) – väeliik (branch of the armed forces)
  • branch of the armed forces (navy, air force, land force) – väeliik (branch of the armed forces)
  • arm of service – relvaliik (weapon type)

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

present terminology standardization 2
Present terminologystandardization 2
  • Security and Defense Policy and Military Terminology Committee attached to the Ministry of Defence was established in 2003.
  • Terms are mostly based on the AAP-6 (Allied Administrative Publications)

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

present terminology standardization 3
Present terminologystandardization 3
  • specific subject areas, word clusters or the concept systems by taking the English term and its definition and providing all existing Estonian equivalents.
  • then they fix the Estonian terms within each concept system considering close synonyms etc.

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

present terminology standardization 4
Present terminologystandardization 4
  • online Estonian-English bilingual dictionary called MILITERM http://mt.legaltext.ee/militerm/
  • the Committee can cover and admit up to 1000 terms per year;
  • by the end of 2007 around 5000 terms with definitions were admitted;
  • includes mostly the strategic and operational level terms and almost no tactical level terms.

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

neoterms
Neoterms
  • psychological consolidation activities – psühholoogilised sõbrastamisvõtted (psychological friends - making measures)

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

harmonization outside committee
Harmonization outside Committee
  • 35 infantry tactics terms (defensive operations);
  • expert group of 20 officers with battalion or brigade level military training in English;
  • terms with definition in English, with all Estonian equivalents from specialized dictionaries (up to six);
  • for one English term, as many as nine different Estonian equivalents were given by 20 people.

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

engagement a tactical conflict usually between opposing lower echelons maneuver forces fm 1 02
ENGAGEMENT (a tactical conflict, usually between opposing lower echelons maneuver forces; FM 1-02)

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

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ENGAGEMENT AREAan area where the commander intends to contain and destroy enemy forces with the massed effects of all available weapons and supporting systems FM 3-90

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

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KEY TERRAINany location or area the seizure or retention of which affords a marked advantage to either combatant; FM 3-90

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Cabré: harmonized terminology ensures a more efficient communication between specialists;
  • some members of the EDF advocate the use of English to ensure the mutual understanding at the international level;
  • sensitive attitude towards language issues.

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

no comments
No comments

CONTACT REPORT, INITIAL CONTACT REPORT

KOKKUPUUTEETTEKANNE

KOKKU

PUUTE

ETTE

KANNE

KONTAKTIETTEKANNE

KONTAKTI

ETTE

KANNE

DIRECT SUPPORT ARTILLERY

OTSETOETUSSUURTÜKIVÄGI

OTSE

TOETUS

SUUR

TÜKI

VÄGI

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College

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THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

TÄNAN TÄHELEPANU EEST

Epp Leete – Estonian National Defence College