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  1. Welcome to Research Methods LDSP 389 Dr. Crystal Hoyt

  2. Culture of Honor • Crime Statistics for Northern and Southern United States • More homicides in the South • Southern and Northern States Comparable in Crime-Related Homicides • More Argument-Related Homicides in Southern States (honor, face issues) • Due to historical events, Southerners developed "culture of honor“ • Insults diminish a man's reputation and he tries to restore his status by aggressive or violent behavior.

  3. Non-Experimental Evidence • Archival Research: The Analysis of Laws • Less restrictive gun control laws in the south and west • Less restrictive self-defense laws in the south and west • Fewer laws for mandatory arrest for domestic or child abuse in the south • Corporal punishment in schools banned less in the South • Attitudes Toward Violence • Southerners and Northerners endorse violence in general at the same level • But Southerners endorse defending family and property and corporal punishment more than Northerners

  4. Experimental Evidence • Experiments: • U of M students who grew up in the North or South. • Insulted by a confederate • Bumped into the participant and called him an "a**hole.“ • Compared with northerners, southerners were • (a) more likely to think their masculine reputation was threatened • (b) more upset (as shown by a rise in cortisol levels) • (c) more physiologically primed for aggression (as shown by a rise in testosterone levels) • (d) more cognitively primed for aggression • (e) more likely to engage in aggressive and dominant behavior.

  5. Split Brain Research • How does the brain affect behavior? • What is each area of the brain responsible for? • Each hemisphere • Split brain patients • Corpus callosum

  6. Split Brain Research

  7. KEY * RING • What did you see? • Normals: “KEYRING” • Split brains: “RING” • Reach out with your left hand and touch the object that was projected on the screen • Touch: KEY • Name the object you touched: “RING".

  8. Split Brain Research • If an image is projected to the right visual field (i.e., to the left hemisphere) patients can describe what they see. • LEFT BRAIN : VERBAL • But when the same image is displayed in the left visual field (i.e., to the right hemisphere), the patient cannot describe what they see. • But if the patient is asked to point to an object similar to the object being projected, they do so with ease. • RIGHT BRAIN: NONVERBAL

  9. Stroop Interference Effect • Well-learned habits often interfere with the production of competing responses • Like moving to a culture that nods heads up and down to mean no and moves head side to side to mean yes. • Stroop used the fact that reading is such a well-learned behavior to demonstrate this

  10. Colors • RED • GREEN • BLUE • PURPLE • BROWN