Research Defined • Systematic process of collecting and logically analyzing data for a purpose. • Research methods – the methodology, how we do it.
Levels of Research • Basic • Test theories • Often in a lab setting • May have limited direct applicability • Not designed to solve social problems Theory – predicts & explains generalizable findings
Levels of Research • Applied • Field & application oriented • Less controlled setting • Relies on a theoretical foundation, but not designed to test theory • Evaluation • Focused on a particular setting or practice • Merit & worth of something
Research vs. Evaluation Research Evaluation • Systematic • Undertaken to establish facts & principles that contribute to a knowledge base • Systematic • Undertaken to address some criteria to make judgments about the worth of something
Research vs. Evaluation Research Evaluation • Prove disprove hypothesis… • Improvement in areas (ie. Personnel, programs, policies)
Hypothesis • Educated guess about the outcomes of a study • SM= A Heisman trophy winner will positively impact ticket sales and donor contributions the following season. • PE= The self-perception of female physical education pre-service teachers will include strong willed behavior, positive presentation and appearance, and aggressive and dominant behavior. • RM= The more serious a triathlete is about the sport, the more likely they are to use negotiation strategies in order to participate as much as desired.
Research vs. Evaluation Research Evaluation • New knowledge, may not be immediately applicable • Theory building • Problem solving & decision making • Problem based
Research vs. Evaluation Research Evaluation • Generalizability • Published • Not generalizable • Used by the organization
Variables • Variables • Any entity that can take on different values/varies • IV = Manipulated, treatment • DV = Effect of the IV, measured • Cause (IV) & effect (DV)
Variables Independent (Manipulated) Dependent (Measured) • Physical activity levels • Televised games • Management style • Game day experiences • Daily PE • Weight • In game attendance • Use of ee rewards • Attendance • BMI
Types of Studies (3) • Descriptive • Describes what is going on & what exists • Relational • Relationship between 2 variables • Causal • Cause/effect a variable has on another
QualvsQuan Quantitative Qualitative • Analysis of numeric data • Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or equipment to collect numerical data. • Analysis of words, actions, objects • Researcher is the data gathering instrument thru interviews, observations, documents
Scientific Method • 1. Developing the problem • Topic of study, issue • Variables • SM: Use of social media=increase ticket sales • PE: Increased time in daily PE=decreased obesity rates • RM: Increased presence in parks=decreased criminal activity
Scientific Method • 2. Formulating the hypothesis • Expected results • Rely on experience & the literature • Study either supports or refutes hypothesis • 3. Gathering the data • Process/methodology • Instruments • Data gathering process
Scientific Method • 4. Analyzing & interpreting the results • Statistics • Comparisons • Dissemination of results
Content of a Research Article (7) • Abstract • Short summary paragraph @ 150 words
Content of a Research Article (7) • Introduction • Put study into context • Overview of topic • Significance to profession/relevance • Research ?’s at end of intro… findthem in your article • Review of literature • Summarizes & analyzes previous research • Theoretical framework
Content of a Research Article (7) • Research hypothesis or question (if applicable to journal) • Results • Stats, tables, analysis
Content of a Research Article (7) • Discussions, implications & conclusions • What was learned • How results relate to previous research • Impact on profession • Any unusual results • Future research… findthem in your article • Generalizability • References
What is a Research Problem? • Research Problem • Issue, controversy, or concern that initiates the study • What level of tickets are most impacted by a winning football season? • How does social media impact athletic event attendance?
What is a Research Problem? • Examples… • What percentage of the daily threshold (12,000 steps) PE class and recess contribute to 6th grade students overall daily PA. • What are the biggest motivations and/or reasons why students attend home athletic contests? • To determine if a certain Myers-Briggs personality type is more successful selling tickets in Major League Baseball
I Need a Problem! • Personal experience & supervisor • Talk with your advisor • Look at the literature
I Need a Problem! • Choose something… • Of interest • Feasible • Not too broad • Not too technical • Impacts the profession • Online list…
I Need a Problem! • 3 criteria for a good problem • Problem can be researched • Requires more than a yes/no answer • Information can be gathered for some type of analysis
Purpose of the Study • Purpose statement • One sentence stating what the study is investigating • Allows reader to quickly identify what the study is about • Usually found at the end of the introduction or the first paragraph • Examples…
Purpose of the Study • The purpose of this study was to explore luxury suite ownership in professional sports and to provide suite sales and facility management professionals an increased understanding of luxury suite ownership • The purpose of this study was to determine an overall competency framework that can be used for parks and recreation boards regardless of whether they are independent, semi-independent, or advisory in nature. • The purpose of the study was to examine first year physical education teachers’ perceptions of levels of support provided by their trained mentors.
Research Question(s) • More clearly define the research problem • Focus the study • Relationship to the hypothesis…
The purpose of this study is to determine if personality type of sport sales professionals impacts job success. RQ #1: What personality type is most successful among sport sales professionals? RQ #2: What personality type is least successful among sport sales professionals? RQ #3: What aspects of a personality type enhances the success of a sport sales professional? • Hy. #1: X personality type is most successful among sport sales professionals • Hy. #2: Y personality type is least successful among sport sales professionals? • Hy. #3: XYZ aspects of a personality type enhance the success of a sport sales professional
The purpose of this study is to determine if personality type of sport sales professionals impacts job success. • Null Hypothesis • There is no difference in personality types among successful sports sales professionals. • No one personality type determines success in sport sales professionals.