Chapter 3- Understanding the Periodic Table

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# Chapter 3- Understanding the Periodic Table - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

7 th Grade. Chapter 3- Understanding the Periodic Table. 7th Grade Science. Chapter 3- Understanding the Periodic Table. PISD PowerPoint Lessons Developed By Ryan Gross, Park Crest Middle School Edited By Kenn Heydrick, Coordinator of Science & Health.

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## Chapter 3- Understanding the Periodic Table

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Chapter 3- Understanding the

Periodic Table

Chapter 3- Understanding the

Periodic Table

PISD PowerPoint Lessons

Developed By

Ryan Gross, Park Crest Middle School

Edited By

Kenn Heydrick, Coordinator of Science & Health

Chapter 3 - Understanding the Periodic Table

Section 1:

Electrons and the Periodic Table

Section 2:

Grouping the Elements

Unit A: Chapter 3

Why Do I Need the Periodic Table?

What Do You Think?

What does your outer shell of clothing say to other people about you and who you are?

Unit A: Chapter 3

Electrons & the Periodic Table
• Electrons in all atoms are arranged around the nucleus in regions called energy levels
• The largest atoms have as many as seven energy levels

Energy Levels

Unit A: Chapter 3

Electrons & the Periodic Table

The outermost energy level is called the valence shell

The electrons in the valence shell are called valence electrons

Energy Levels

Unit A: Chapter 3

Electrons & the Periodic Table

Elements are grouped because they have similar properties

In some groups, the elements all have the same number of valence electrons in their atoms

Unit A: Chapter 3

Electrons & the Periodic Table

In atoms of elements in Groups 1 & 2, the number of valence electronsmatches the group number

Unit A: Chapter 3

Electrons & the Periodic Table

In atoms of elements in Groups 13-18, the number of valence electrons is10 fewer than the group number

Unit A: Chapter 3

Electrons & the Periodic Table
• Atoms of elements in Groups 3-12, the Transition Metals, do not follow a general rule
• In addition, helium atoms only have 2 valence electrons

Unit A: Chapter 3

Why Do I Need the Periodic Table?

What Do You Think?

What similarities exist between you and the other members of your family? How about between you and your classmates?

Unit A: Chapter 3

Grouping the Elements - Group 1

Group 1: Alkali Metals-

1 Valence Electron

All metals except Hydrogen, the Group 1 elements, are the most reactive.

Unit A: Chapter 3

Grouping the Elements - Group 1

Group 1: Alkali Metals-

1 Valence Electron

This means that the atoms of these elements are not stable and will lend valence electrons to other atoms.

Unit A: Chapter 3

Grouping the Elements - Group 1

Group 1: Alkali Metals-

1 Valence Electron

These elements are never found uncombined in nature.

Unit A: Chapter 3

Grouping the Elements - Group 1

Alkali Metals

• Compounds formed from Alkali metals have many uses for humans
• NaCl, or Sodium Chloride, is table salt that is used to season your food
• Potassium compounds are found in bananas

Unit A: Chapter 3

Grouping the Elements - Group 2

Group 2: Alkaline-Earth Metals- 2 Valence Electrons

Alkaline-Earth metals are very reactive, but not as reactive as Alkali metals.

Unit A: Chapter 3

Grouping the Elements - Group 2

Group 2: Alkaline-Earth Metals- 2 Valence Electrons

This is because it is harder for their atoms to lose 2 valence electrons than for the Alkali metals to lose 1

Unit A: Chapter 3

Grouping the Elements - Group 2

Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals

• Magnesium is mixed with other metals to make rims on cars.
• Calcium is an important part of the compound that keeps your bones and teeth healthy.

Unit A: Chapter 3

Grouping the ElementsGroups 3-12

Groups 3-12: Transition Metals

Groups 3-12 do not have individual names.

Unit A: Chapter 3

Groups 3-12

Groups 3-12 are all grouped together as the Transition Metals.

Groups 3-12

Unit A: Chapter 3

Groups 3-12

The Transition Metals are less reactive than Groups 1 & 2 because they don’t lose their valence electrons as easily.

Groups 3-12

Unit A: Chapter 3

Grouping the Elements

Silver and Gold are Transition Metals.

Unit A: Chapter 3

Grouping the Elements

Transition Metals

Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel, all Transition Metals, are the only elements known to produce a magnetic field.

Unit A: Chapter 3

Group 13

Group 13: Boron Group

The most common element from Group 13 is aluminum.

Unit A: Chapter 3

Group 13
• Aluminum was considered more precious than gold or silver until the 1880s, when plentiful electricity made it cheaper.
• Aluminum is used to make cans, cars, and airplanes.

Unit A: Chapter 3

Group 14

Group 14: Carbon Group

The nonmetal Carbon, in Group 14, is often found uncombined in nature.

Unit A: Chapter 3

Group 14

Carbon forms both diamonds and charcoal.

Carbon also forms a wide variety of compounds such as proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, all necessary for life on earth.

Unit A: Chapter 3

Group 15

Group 15: Nitrogen Group

Nitrogen, a gas at room temperature, makes up about 78% of the air you breathe.

Unit A: Chapter 3

Group 15

Group 15: Nitrogen Group

Nitrogen from the air is combined with Hydrogen to make fertilizer.

Fertilizer helps grow the crops that feed us all.

Unit A: Chapter 3

Group 16

Oxygen, in Group 16, makes up about 21% of the air you breathe.

Oxygen is very reactive, combining with many other elements such as iron and carbon.

Unit A: Chapter 3

Group 16
• Sulfur, another common member of Group 16, is used to make sulfuric acid for car batteries.

Unit A: Chapter 3

Group 17

Halogens are the very reactive nonmetals in Group 17.

They react easily because their atoms only need to gain 1 electron to have a complete set

Unit A: Chapter 3

Group 17

Chlorine is a yellow halogen that is used to disinfect water for drinking and swimming

Unit A: Chapter 3

Group 18

Noble gases are unreactive nonmetals in Group 18.

These elements’ atoms have full outermost energy levels, and cannot react with other elements

Unit A: Chapter 3

Group 18

Noble gases like neon glow when electrically charged.

Argon in a light bulb keeps the filament from burning out.

Unit A: Chapter 3

Let’s Review!
• 1 -
• How does the periodic table help you identify the physical properties of elements?

Unit A: Chapter 3

Let’s Review!
• 2 -
• How are elements grouped on the periodic table of elements?

Unit A: Chapter 3