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Introduction to Politics and Globalization

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  1. Introduction to Politics and Globalization Spring 2012 Dr Daniel Pierre-Antoine

  2. Introduction to politics & globalization Course organization & requirements Today

  3. General remarks

  4. Who/what is “global politics” about? A complex world Many actors & issues Conflict & cooperation The need to define politics… • Actors • Corporations • Indigenous peoples • Intergovernmental organizations • Individuals • Nations • Non-governmental organizations* • Organized crime syndicates • States • Workers • Tourists • Issues • Arms & arms control • Cooperation • Culture • Democracy • Diplomacy • Environment • Finance • Human rights • International law • Migration • Terrorism • Trade • War

  5. Defining politics Life in a polis, hence politics “Who gets what, when, and how” (H. Lasswell) Any discussion about the “good life” Conflicts of worldview, values & interests Power relations

  6. Treating the state as the main actor Looking at the state its government what it says what it does Assuming that the state is the only voice in international affairs Focusing on “high politics” (diplomacy & defence) & downplaying the rest State-centrism: A bad habit

  7. Characteristics of the state • An idealized view • Government • Defined territory • Permanent population • Monopoly of legitimate use of force internally & externally • Recognition by other states • A gross oversimplification

  8. Country, state, nation-state: moral persons (as opposed to natural persons) ex.: Burkina Faso, Canada, China, Tuvalu Nation, people: population that inhabits a country/state/nation-state ex.: the Burkinabè, Canadians, the Chinese, Tuvaluans Government: group of people & institutions that rule a country/state/nation-state* and its population The need to clarify some often-misused terms

  9. Explaining the obsession with the state

  10. The Thirty Years’ War, 1618-1648 Result of the Protestant Reformation A 3-way conflict Most European states involved Protestant states War War Catholics states Holy See (Vatican) Dispute

  11. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) & sovereignty Holy See & Catholic states recognize Protestant states Catholic states recognize Holy See’s spiritual power… But get political independence The obvious result: governments get choose the official religion and make other decisions independently of the Holy See (document, text, signing ceremony)

  12. State sovereignty & the international system Ideal conditions ability to manage its internal affairs ability to represent itself independently externally a principle of non-interference by other states States are basic political & legal units of the system Hence the expressions “international system”, “interstate system”, “Westphalian system”

  13. Painting a more accurate picture

  14. “Globalization” & global politics Often used, seldom defined Invoked as a source of peace, wealth, freedom, democracy & apple pie cause of social, economic, environmental problems & bad-hair days In reality not necessarily good or bad multidimensional

  15. Defining globalization • Steger’s definition: “The term globalization applies to a set of social processes that appear to transform our present social condition of weakening nationality into one of globality. At its core, then, globalization is about shifting forms of human contact.” Manfred Steger, Globalization: A Very Short Introduction, p. 9

  16. Defining globalization David Held and Anthony McGrew’s definition: “…the term globalization captures elements of a widespread perception that there is a broadening, deepening and speeding up of world-wide interconnectedness in all aspects of life, from the cultural to the criminal, the financial to the environmental. At issue appears to be 'a global shift'; that is, a world being moulded by economic and technological forces into a shared economic and political arena”, David Held and Anthony McGrew, “What is Globalization”http://www.polity.co.uk/global/whatisglobalization.asp

  17. Multiple dimensions of globalization Politics, ideology, culture International law and organizations, demo-cratization, human rights, religion, migration • Countless actors involved • Opportunities for conflict & fragmentation • Opportunities for cooperation Environment Pollution, global warming, ozone de-pletion, deforestation, water scarcity, farm-land scarcity Security War, civil war, arms races/arms control, terrorism, organized crime Economy Trade, finance, development, employment

  18. The importance of consciousness Relations across the world are not new But growing consciousness of them invention of the word “globalization” (c. 1989) frequency of use of the word “globalization” Globalization affects… people’s thinking people’s actions

  19. Earlier forms of globalization?

  20. Roman Empire, c. 117 AD

  21. Muslim empire, c. 750 AD

  22. Muslim commercial routes, c. 800-1200

  23. Mongol empire, 1200s

  24. European explorations, 1420-1580

  25. Major European trade routes, 1400-1800

  26. European empires, 1850-1914

  27. In sum… A very complex world Many issues Many different actors Many different problems

  28. Course organization & requirements

  29. Contact information Last name: Pierre-Antoine First name: Daniel Availability: Tuesday 12:30-13:30, DMS 9113 Web: Virtual Campus

  30. Course organization Material “political”* issues, lectures 2-6 “economic”* issues, lectures 7-12 Lectures 2 related topics (usually) break discussion * These are artificial differences

  31. Readings Compulsory & equally important Complement the lectures One textbook bundle at The Agora bookstore (145 Besserer St.) Steven Spiegel et al., World Politics in a New Era 5th Ed. (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009) Manfred Steger, Globalization: A Very Short Introduction 2nd Ed. (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009) Other readings Online: as indicated on the syllabus

  32. Evaluation • 8 discussion groups (15%) • starting 8 May • attendance is compulsory • days without discussion are indicated on the syllabus • Midterm exam (35%) • 22 May, usual room, usual time • covers material from lectures 1-5 • duration: 2 hours • Final exam (50%) • 12 June, 9:00-12:00, ART 026 • cumulative • duration: 3 hours

  33. Dotting I’s and crossing T’s Grades & scholarships Email & office consultations etiquette University lectures can’t compete with entertainment & leisure

  34. Conclusion For info, always check the syllabus the website 95% of answers are there Do the readings regularly Attend classes

  35. Questions? Next class: War & security