Chapter1 section 1 Principles of Government
Aristotle • A scholar in ancient Greece, was one of the first students of government.
nation • Any sizeable group of people who are united by common bonds of race, language, custom, tradition, and sometimes religion.
Evolutionary Theory; the state evolved from the family Social contract theory Thomas Hobbes John Locke
Purposes of government • Maintain social order • Provide public service • Provide national security • Make economic decisions
Chapter 1 Section 2The Formation of Government • The relationship b/w a nation’s national government and its smaller government divisions can be described as either unitary or federal. • Unitary; gives all key powers to the national or central government. (ex. Great Britain, Italy, and France) • Federal system; divides the powers b/w the national gov’t and state gov’t. Confederacy Loose union of independent states
Constitutions and government • A constitution is a plan that provides the rules for government. • Purposes • It sets out ideals that the people bound by the constitution believe and share. • It establishes the basic structure of government and defines the government’s powers and duties • It provides the supreme law of the country. *U.S. Constitution (1787) oldest written constitution still serving a nation today*
Cont’d • Constitutional government; a government in which a constitution has authority to place clearly recognized limits on the powers of those who govern. (limited government) • Constitutions are incomplete guides to how a country is actually governed. • Most constitutions contain a statement that sets forth the goals and purposes to be served by the government; preamble.
Cont’d • The main body of a constitution sets out the plan for government. • Usually divided into parts called articles and sections • The U.S. Const. has 7 articles and 21 sections. • Constitutions provide the supreme law for states • Constitutional law; involves the interpretation and application of the constitution.
Politics and Government • The effort to control or influence the conduct and policies of government is called politics. Governing In A Complex World Because of great inequalities among countries, the world today is full of contrasts. • Industrialized nations; generally have large industries and advanced technology. • Developing nations are only beginning to develop industrially.
Chapter 1 Section 3 • Governments can be classified in many ways; based on a key question: Who governs the state? • Aristotle’s 3 Types of Government • Autocracy; rule by one person • Oligarchy; rule by a few persons • Democracy; rule by many persons
Autocracy • Power in the hands of a single individual • Oldest and one of the most common forms of government • Totalitarian dictatorship; ideas of a single leader is glorified & gov’t seeks to control all aspects of social and economic life. (take power by force) • Monarchy; king, queen or emperor exercise extreme power in gov’t (inherit their powers) • Absolute monarchs • Constitutional monarchs
Oligarchy • Derives power from wealth, military power, social position, or a combination. (sometimes religion) • Ex. Communist countries such as China; leaders in the party and the armed forces control the country.
Democracy • Key idea; people hold sovereign power • Direct democracy; people govern themselves by voting on issues individually as citizens. • Representative democracy; the people elect representatives and give them the responsibility and power to make laws and conduct government. • Republic; voters are the source of the government’s authority. • Requires citizen participation.
Characteristics of a Democracy • Individual liberty • Majority Rule with Minority Rights • Laws enacted will represent majority, but protect minority rights • Free Elections • Everyone’s vote carries the same weight. “one person one vote” • Competing Political Parties • Political party; a group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office.
The Soil of Democracy Democratic government is more likely to succeed in countries which to some degree meet five general criteria. • Active Citizen Participation • A Favorable Economy • Free enterprise; the opportunity to control one’s economic decisions. • Widespread Education • Strong Civil Society • Civil society; a complex network of groups that exist independently of government. • A Social Consensus
Section 4: Economic theories • Selling advertising, providing a service or product to meet a demand, paying wages and taxes—these are economic activities • Economics; the study of human efforts to satisfy seemingly unlimited wants through the use of limited resources. • People in every nation must decide how these resources are to be used. • Governments generally regulate this economic activity.
The Role of Economic Systems • All economic systems must make three economic decisions. • What to produce • How to produce • For Whom to produce *Each major economic system in the world answers these questions differently*
Capitalism • Freedom of choice and individual incentives for workers, investors, consumers, and business enterprises is emphasized • Characteristics of Pure Capitalism • Private ownership/control of property and economic resources • Free enterprise • Competition among businesses • Freedom of choice • Possibility of profit
Origins of Capitalism • Major changes in the economic organization of Europe began w/ the opening of trade routes to the east in the thirteenth century. • Free market; buyers and sellers free to make unlimited economic decisions in the market place.
Cont’d • In 1776, Adam Smith, a Scottish philosopher and economist, provided a philosophy for capitalism. • Laissez-faire; a French term meaning “to let alone”—government should keep its hands off the economy.
Free Enterprise in the U.S. • Govt’s main purpose to preserve the free market. • Government Influence • Largest buyer of goods and services in the country • Meat inspection act/pure food and drug act • The Great Depression • Mixed-Market Economy; an economy in which free enterprise is combined w/ and supported by the government decisions in the market place.
Socialism • Government owns the basic means of production, determines the use of resources, distributes the products and wages and provides social services such has education, health care, and welfare. • 3 Main Goals • Distribution of wealth equally among people. • Society’s control of all major decisions about production • Public ownership of land
Democratic Socialism • People have some control over government trade through free elections but government owns basic means of production.
Communism • Karl Marx (1818-1883), socialist who advocated violent revolution • Bourgeoisie; or capitalist, own the means of production • Proletariat; workers, who produce goods • Believed that capitalists were a ruling class because they used their economic power to force their will on the workers. • All human history as class struggle • Encouraged revolution.
Cont’d • Communism; one class, property held in common, no need for government. • Command economy; government controls factors of production (what, how, for whom to produce). • State owns land, resources, banks, and transportation and controls mass communication.