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Chapter 12. An Age of Reform 1820-1860. Wednesday, May 14, 2014. No Homework Do Now: Open your textbooks to page 412-413. Review the map and timeline, what changes are happening in the US from 1820-1860?. Improving Society. The Reforming Spirit Jacksonian Democracy

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chapter 12

Chapter 12

An Age of Reform 1820-1860

wednesday may 14 2014
Wednesday, May 14, 2014
  • No Homework
  • Do Now: Open your textbooks to page 412-413. Review the map and timeline, what changes are happening in the US from 1820-1860?
improving society
Improving Society
  • The Reforming Spirit
    • Jacksonian Democracy
      • Expansion of democracy encouraged reform
        • Most states dropped the property requirement for voting
        • Political parties developed a more open way of nominating presidential candidates
      • Reformers wanted more
        • All men should be able to vote
        • Increased rights for women
        • Many were against slavery
          • No society that allowed one human to own another could be democratic
improving society1
Improving Society
  • The Second Great Awakening
    • Religious ideas also sparked reform
    • New generation of ministers challenged traditional views
    • Predestination was challenged
      • Idea that God decided the fate of a person’s soul even before birth
      • 2nd Great Awakening leaders said that a person’s actions determined their salvation
    • Charles Finney – most important of the 2nd Awakening preachers
      • Held many revivals in 1826
        • Huge outdoor religious meeting
      • Basic result of the 2nd Great Awakening was that people came to believe that they had the power to improve themselves and their society
improving society2
Improving Society
  • Utopian Communities
    • Robert Owen
      • Founded a utopian community
        • Utopian refers to an ideal – perfect society
    • New Harmony
      • Community owned property
      • Everyone had jobs to do – all contributed for the good of the community
      • Food, wealth, land – all were shared equally
    • New Harmony was anything but harmonious
      • Community members constantly argued about goals and actions
      • The colony dissolved after about 2 years
    • Most utopian communities did not last long
      • Their downfall is because of one main problem

People are GREEDY!

improving society3
Improving Society
  • Social Reformers at Work
    • Temperance Movement
      • Organized effort to end alcohol abuse and the problems created by it
    • Whiskey was the drink of choice
      • Cheaper than beer or milk
      • Safer than water
        • Frequently the water supply was contaminated
    • Many women were drawn to the movement
      • They and children suffered abuse from fathers and husbands who drank too much
    • Most Reformers favored Temperance (moderation) in drinking
      • Others chose to push for prohibition
        • A total ban on the sale and consumption of alcohol
        • 9 states passed laws banning the use/sale
        • The movement was interrupted by the civil war but re-emerged later
improving society4
Improving Society
  • Prison Reform
    • Prison system was very harsh
      • Poorly heated buildings, inadequate food, cramped conditions
      • They were designed so that people did not want to be there
    • Not all prisoners were criminals
      • Debtors were sent to prison
        • To pay a debt back – you had to work
        • You cannot work in prison
        • Many debtors spent years in jail
    • Dorothea Dix
      • Schoolteacher from Massachusetts who took up the cause of prison reform
      • Over time she convinced state legislatures to build new, sanitary and humane prisons
        • Also, debtors were no longer sent to jail
improving society5
Improving Society
  • Reforms for the Mentally Ill
    • Also led by Dorothea Dix
      • She saw what happened to the mentally ill and was shocked
    • The Mentally Ill were kept in prisons
      • They received punishment rather than treatment and care
        • As if it was their fault for their illness
    • Their conditions were often worse than prisoners
      • Kept in cages
      • Never let outside
      • Chained together
    • Dix lobbied state legislatures to build separate facilities
      • Asylums
        • Institutions where mentally ill people could receive care and treatment rather than punishment
improving society6
Improving Society
  • Education Reform
    • Need for better education
      • In the early 1800s many children received no education
        • Wealthy families hired private tutors
        • Poor children received no education outside the home
      • As a result, many Americans could not read or write
    • Reformers argued that education was important
      • Must make sure that voters were intelligently informed
      • Immigration was also on the rise
        • Better schools would help immigrants become part of American culture
improving society7
Improving Society
  • Horace Mann
    • Took the lead for education reform
    • Said public financing of education was essential for democracy to work
    • Became head of the state board of education in Massachusetts
      • Convinced the legislature to improve schools
        • Created colleges to train teachers
        • Raised the salaries of teachers
        • Lengthened the school year
      • Other states soon followed this example
      • By the 1850s public schools were common in the NE
        • The west and south lagged behind
        • But eventually they developed their own
improving society8
Improving Society
  • Education for African Americans
    • Public education did little for African Americans
      • Slave codes prohibited slaves from being taught to read and write
      • In the north, free black children were seldom permitted to enter the same schools as whites
    • Some reformers tried to improve
      • Prudence Crandall
        • Quaker teacher who opened a school for African American girls in Connecticut.
        • Hostile neighbors attacked and destroyed the school
    • Some opportunities did open up
      • African American teachers opened their own private schools
      • Harvard and Oberlin universities allowed African Americans to attend
      • In 1854 Ashmun Institute opened in Pennsylvania
        • First college for African American Men
wednesday october 9 2013
Wednesday, October 9, 2013
  • No Homework 
  • Do Now: have out homework from last night (reforms)
the fight against slavery
The Fight Against Slavery
  • Roots of the Anti-Slavery Movement
    • Slavery Ends in the North
      • 1780 – Pennsylvania became the first state to pass a law eliminating slavery gradually
      • In 1803 Ohio entered the union as a free state
      • By 1804 – every northern state pledged to end slavery
    • The Colonization Movement
      • Anti-slavery organization established in 1817
        • They had a novel idea…
        • Free slaves, and transport them to a colony established in Africa
          • Liberia
thursday october 10 2013
Thursday, October 10, 2013
  • Homework: page 426 1-3
  • Do Now: Take out notes from yesterday and be ready to continue
the fight against slavery1
The Fight Against Slavery
  • Growing Opposition to Slavery
    • Inspired by the 2nd Great Awakening
      • Abolitionists
        • Reformers who wanted to abolish, or end, slavery
        • They rejected a gradual end – wanted it stopped ASAP
    • William Lloyd Garrison
      • Quaker abolitionists
        • Did not want violence used
        • Was more radical than others – wanted full political rights for all African Americans
        • Began a newspaper in 1831 – The Liberator
        • Co-founded the Anti-Slavery Society
          • Members included Theodore Weld
          • Sarah and Angelina Grimke
the fight against slavery2
The Fight Against Slavery
  • African American Abolitionists
    • 1829 – David Walker – Appeal: To the Coloured Citizens of the World
      • pamphlet that encouraged enslaved people to rebel, if necessary, to regain their freedom
    • Frederick Douglas
      • Most influential of African American Abolitionists
        • Had been born into slavery
        • Broke the law by learning how to read and write
      • Escaped to freedom in the North
      • Risked being sent back to slavery by speaking out in public
      • Began his own newspaper for Abolition The North Star
the fight against slavery3
The Fight Against Slavery
  • A Former President Takes a Stand
    • John Quincy Adams
      • Now a member of congress
      • Read anti-slavery petitions from the floor of the house
      • Proposed a constitutional amendment that would ban slavery in any new states
        • Amendment was not passed
      • Argued in front of the U.S. Supreme Court for the freedom of the captive African Americans aboard the Amistad
the fight against slavery4
The Fight Against Slavery
  • The Underground Railroad
    • A Network of People
      • Black and white, northerner and southerner
        • All helped slaves reach freedom
      • Working for the ‘railroad’ was illegal
      • ‘conductors’ led slaves from one ‘station’ to another
      • Supporters helped by donating food, money, and clothing
        • Levi Coffin – an Indiana Quaker – assisted more than 3,000 slaves
    • Harriet Tubman
      • Escaped from slavery and helped 300 others to freedom
        • Nicknamed the ‘Black Moses’
        • Southern slave owners offered $40,000 for her capture
the fight against slavery5
The Fight Against Slavery
  • Opposing Abolition
    • Profits
      • Many northerners profited from the existence of slavery
        • Textile mills and merchants counted on the cotton produced in the south
        • Northern workers feared freed slaves would take their jobs
      • These fears prompted violence
        • William Lloyd Garrison was dragged through the streets with a rope around his neck in Boston
        • Georgia offered a $50,000 reward for the arrest and conviction of Garrison for libel
      • Gag Rule
        • Won in congress by southerners – it blocked discussion of anti-slavery petitions
        • J.Q. Adams fought the rule, but lost
a call for women s rights
A Call for Women’s Rights
  • The Struggle Begins
    • In 1820 – Women’s rights were limited
      • They could not:
        • Serve on juries
        • Vote
        • Attend college
        • Become doctors or lawyers
        • Married women couldn’t own property
    • Some women stood up against this
      • Sojourner Truth
        • Born into slavery – she was illiterate
        • Her words inspired crowds that heard her
        • She became a powerful voice for freedom and equality
monday october 14 2013
Monday, October 14, 2013
  • Christopher Columbus, Villain or Hero? Essay due Friday (typed, double spaced!)
  • Do Now: What happened when Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton tried to attend the anti-slavery convention?
a call for women s rights1
A Call for Women’s Rights
  • Lucretia Mott
    • Anti-Slavery Quaker
      • Because Quakers allowed women to take public roles, she had experience in organization and public speaking most other women did not
      • Went to London to attend an international anti-slavery convention
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton
    • Another abolitionist
      • Was in London with her husband – a delegate to the Anti-Slavery Convention
  • The Two Meet
    • Mott and Stanton tried to attend the convention
    • They were told “No Women Allowed”
    • This infuriated them
a call for women s rights2
A Call for Women’s Rights
  • Declaration of Sentiments
    • Mott and Stanton agreed on the need for a convention to advance women’s rights
    • Summer of 1848 – Seneca Falls, NY
      • Met to discuss the social, civil, and religious rights of women
      • More than 300 men and women attended
    • Stanton wrote a declaration of sentiments modeled on the declaration of independence
      • “we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men and women are created equal”
        • The declaration then listed the injustices society placed upon women
a call for women s rights3
A Call for Women’s Rights
    • Call for Suffrage
      • Begun by Stanton with her argument for rights
      • Suffrage is the right to vote
      • Some women were divided on the issue
        • Lucretia Mott argued that the issue was so controversial that trying to gain the right would hurt their other causes
  • New Opportunities for Women
    • The Seneca Falls Convention launched the women’s rights movement
      • An organized effort to improve the political, legal, and economic status of women in American Society
a call for women s rights4
A Call for Women’s Rights
  • Political Victories
    • Susan B. Anthony
      • Became a close ally of Stanton
      • Fought for women’s suffrage
    • Anthony was unmarried
      • Unlike Stanton she could travel across the country
        • Stanton wrote speeches from her home while taking care of her growing family
      • Together they founded the Women’s Suffrage Association
      • Susan was arrested in 1872 for voting in the Presidential Election
a call for women s rights5
A Call for Women’s Rights
  • Education for Women
    • More opportunities for women
      • Girls were rarely taught math and science, those were reserved for boys who would grow up to be voters, citizens, and professionals
    • Emma Willard
      • Began an academy for girls in Troy, NY
      • Soon became the model for girls’ schools
    • Mary Lyon
      • Opened Mount Holyoke Female Seminary
      • First college for women
      • Showed that women could indeed learn subjects like geometry, chemistry, and Latin
a call for women s rights6
A Call for Women’s Rights
  • New Careers
      • Gradually society began to accept that women could be educated and do other professions
    • Margaret Fuller
      • Began a career as a journalist, scholar, and literary critic
    • Elizabeth Blackwell
      • First woman to graduate from an American Medical College
    • Maria Mitchell
      • Astronomer, first professor hired at Vassar College
tuesday october 15 2013
Tuesday, October 15, 2013
  • Homework:
    • Columbus essay due Friday
    • Page 431 Key terms and people for tomorrow
  • Do Now: page 430 # 1,2,5
american literature and arts
American Literature and Arts
  • An American Culture Develops
    • American Themes
      • Art and literature reflected optimism and energy
      • Their works were about things uniquely American
    • Two Early Writers
      • Washington Irving
        • The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
        • Rip Van Winkle
      • James Fenimore Cooper
        • The Deerslayer
        • The Last of the Mohicans
thursday october 17 2013
Thursday, October 17, 2013
  • Homework: Essay due tomorrow! Chapter 12 test Tuesday!
  • DO Now: have out homework, compare with a partner
american literature and arts1
American Literature and Arts
  • Transcendentalism
      • Movement that looked to explore the relationship between humans and nature through emotions rather than reason
      • They urged people to seek goodness and truth within their own souls
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson
    • Leading transcendentalist
      • Asked people to question the value of material goods in his speeches and essays
      • Stressed individualism
        • The unique importance of each individual
  • Henry David Thoreau
    • Urged people to live simply
    • Encouraged civil disobedience
      • Idea that people should peacefully disobey unjust laws if their consciences demand it
      • This inspired civil rights leaders like Martin Luther King Jr.
american literature and arts2
American Literature and Arts
  • Flowering of American Literature
    • Herman Melville
      • Moby Dick (1851)
        • Tale of a captain who is obsessed with pursuing a white whale. In the end, the captain destroys himself, his ship, and his crew
    • Nathaniel Hawthorne
      • The Scarlet Letter (1850)
        • A young minister is destroyed by secret guilt.
        • Hawthorne explored the dark side of the mind.
    • Louisa May Alcott
      • Little Women (1868)
        • Novel based on her own experiences growing up with three sisters.
american literature and arts3
American Literature and Arts
  • Poets of Democracy
    • Poets helped create a new national voice
    • Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
      • Based poems on American History
      • Paul Revere’s Ride
      • Song of Hiawatha
    • Walt Whitman
      • Leaves of Grass
      • Book of poems
    • John Greenleaf Whittier
    • Frances Watkins Harper
      • Both wrote poems that condemned slavery
american literature and arts4
American Literature and Arts
  • Art and Music
    • Painting America
          • Some painters sought to stir emotions by reproducing the beauty of nature – others painted everyday life
      • Thomas Cole
        • Painted scenes of the Hudson River
      • George Caleb Bingham
        • Timeless picture of life on the great rivers
      • George Catlin
        • Captured the ways and dignity of Native Americans
american literature and arts5
American Literature and Arts
  • Popular Songs
    • Most early American songs had roots in English, Irish, or Scottish tunes
    • Over time a wider variety emerged
      • Working songs hummed by sailors or workers
      • Spiritual songs sung by slaves
    • Stephen Collins Foster
      • Father of American Music
        • “Camptown Races”
        • “Old Folks at Home”
        • “Oh! Susanna!”