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Chapter 12

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Chapter 12

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  1. Chapter 12 Statehood for Texas 1845-1851 http://www.learner.org/interactives/historymap/states_texas.html

  2. The United States Expands Manifest Destiny http://www.learner.org/interactives/historymap/states.html

  3. Vocabulary • Legislature: government body that has power to make or pass laws • Executive Branch: part of government that carries out the laws (US: president, vice president; State: governor, lieutenant governor) • Legislative Branch: part of government that makes the laws • Judicial Branch: part of government that interprets and applies laws (judges, courts)

  4. Vocabulary, con’t • Governor: highest officer in state government (like the president) • Lieutenant Governor: second highest officer in state government (like the vice president)

  5. Constitutional Convention of 1845 • Texas was annexed by US in 1845 • Texas had to write a constitution (used US Constitution and Constitutions of other states as examples) • Delegates met in Austin on July 4, 1845 • Thomas Jefferson Rusk was president of Constitutional Convention • Finished writing Texas Constitution on August 28, 1845

  6. Delegates • Jose Antonio Navarro • Only Texas born delegate • Served in Texas Senate • Helped write Republic of Texas Constitution • Has a county named after him • James Power • Born in Ireland • Helped write Republic of Texas Constitution • Most of delegates were from southern states • 5 delegates had signed Texas Declaration of Independence • Hiram G. Runnels had helped write Mississippi Constitution

  7. Provisions of the Texas Constitution of 1845 • Protected homesteads from being taken away to pay debts • Did not allow ministers or priests to serve in legislature • Did allow settlers from other states to continue to bring slaves with them to Texas • Women still had right to own land • Established 3 Branches of Government

  8. Established 3 Branches of Government • Executive: highest ranking officers in govt • Governor • Lieutenant Governor • Legislative: makes the laws • Senate • House of Representatives • Judicial: interprets the laws and applies laws in court system; judges and courts

  9. BRANCHES OF STATE GOVERNMENT

  10. Election of 1845 • After Texas Constitution was passed, first election was held on December, 1845 • Elected Officials: • James Pickney Henderson—1stGovernor • Albert C. Horton—1st Lieutenant Governor • Thomas J. Rusk and Sam Houston—1stSenators • David Kaufman and Timothy Pillsbury—1st Members of Texas House of Representatives • John Hemphill—chief justice of Supreme Court of Texas

  11. James Pickney Henderson Thomas J. Rusk http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Pinckney_Henderson http://www.lsjunction.com/people/rusk.htm Jose Antonio Navarro http://www.tamu.edu/faculty/ccbn/dewitt/Navarro.htm

  12. Mexican and US Policy on Texas • Mexico not happy that US annexed Texas • Mexico still didn’t recognize Treaties of Velasco • Claimed that Santa Anna only signed treaty because his life was in danger • During the 10 years that Texas was a Republic, Mexico continued to think of Texas as belonging to Mexico • Mexican leaders thought the Texas Revolution had been planned by the US • Mexico warned the US that if Texas was annexed, it would mean war

  13. Tensions Between Mexico and the US • Border of Texas: Rio Grande • US accepted that based on Treaties of Velasco • Mexico didn’t recognize Treaties of Velasco • Mexico still claimed all of Texas • Mexico said that border of Texas was the Nueces River (not Rio Grande)

  14. Tensions, con’t • Tensions between US and Mexico not only about who controlled Texas • US believed in Manifest Destiny • US was destined to claim all land to California and the Pacific Ocean • Mexico didn’t want to give up Texas and land in California area

  15. Tensions, con’t • When US annexed Texas (1845), Mexico threatened war • US President (James K. Polk) sent John Slidell to Mexico to try to work things out • US would pay for damages that US citizens said Mexico caused (Mexico not have to pay for the damages) • In return, he asked Mexico to recognize Texas as part of US and to transfer land between Texas and California to US • But, Mexican leaders refused to talk to Slidell • Mexican leaders were offended that US thought Mexico would trade land for money

  16. Tensions, con’t • Some citizens of US (in New England) didn’t want to expand westward • They thought US was just trying to expand slavery • These were the people who were against the annexation of Texas

  17. Fighting Breaks Out • US President Polk sent General Zachary Taylor (aka Old Rough and Ready) to Neuces River with troops • Mexican General Mariano Arista led Mexican troops to Rio Grande • Shots were fired in April 24,1846 and War with Mexico declared on May 13, 1846

  18. Texas VoicesPage 273 …Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States, has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon American soil. She has proclaimed that hostilities have commenced and that the two nations are at war… In further vindication of our rights and defense of our territory, I invoke the prompt action of Congress to recognize the existence of war President James K. Polk message to Congress, May 11, 1846

  19. The War with Mexico • General Winfield Scott (Old Fuss and Feathers) took over General Taylor’s troops • Made his way to Mexico City • Invaded Mexico City in Sept, 1847…war ended there • Many lives lost…US lost 13,000 men • War ended with Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

  20. Texans in the War with Mexico • About 5000 Texans fought in War with Mexico • Texas Governor James P. Henderson fought • Many still wanted to “Remember the Alamo” • Many wanted to retaliate against those in Mier expedition • Many of the Texans were Texas Rangers • Very brave and daring; great fighting ability; very valued and respected fighters • Mexican term for them was Texas Devils because they were fierce fighters

  21. Texans in the War with Mexico, con’t Texas Rangers, con’t • Served as scouts for Generals Taylor and Scott…knew Texas landscape and helped guide troops into Mexico • Famous Rangers • Ben McCulloch, Samuel H. Walker, John S. Ford

  22. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo • Ended War with Mexico • Signed on February 2, 1848 • Provisions • Mexico agreed that Texas was now part of US • Mexico surrendered land between Texas and Pacific Ocean…California • This transfer of Land from Mexico to US=Cession • Included California, and future states of New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Wyoming, Utah, & Colorado • In return, US paid Mexico $15 million and paid claims made against Mexico by Texans

  23. The Gadsden Purchase • 1853, US bought a long narrow strip of land along border of New Mexico and Texas • Purpose: land for a railroad—ended up being the Southern Transcontinental RR • James Gadsden from South Carolina convinced US to pay Santa Anna $10 million (33 cents/acre) for the land • Became known as the Gadsden Purchase

  24. http://www.learner.org/interactives/historymap/states.html

  25. James K. Polk John Slidell http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_K._Polk http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/chron/civilwarnotes/slidell.html James Gadsden Mexican General Mariano Arista http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Gadsden http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/mariano-arista.htm

  26. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winfield_Scott http://www.visitingdc.com/president/zachary-taylor-picture.htm General Zachary Taylor General Winfield Scott http://www.civilwarhome.com/scottbio.htm http://www.sonofthesouth.net/mexican-war/zachary-taylor.htm http://www.sonofthesouth.net/mexican-war/winfield-scott.htm http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/zacharytaylor

  27. Texas-New Mexico Border Dispute • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo established Rio Grande as southern border of Texas • But, there was a dispute over Texas’ western border • Texans didn’t think Rio Grande ended at El Paso but continued northward through New Mexico to source of river—San Juan Mountains in Colorado • If the border continued all the way up to Colorado, about ½ of New Mexico would be in Texas—including Santa Fe

  28. Texas-New Mexico Border Dispute, con’t • People in New Mexico didn’t want to be Texans • People there had ties with Mexico and most spoke Spanish • Lots of people there were still mad that Mirabeau Lamar tried to control New Mexico when he was president of the Republic (Santa Fe Expedition)

  29. Texas’ Efforts to Gain Control of New Mexico • Texas wanted to gain control of New Mexico • Texas Governor Henderson sent people up to Santa Fe to force them to surrender to Texas • Santa Fe leaders refused to become Texans

  30. Texas’ Efforts to Gain Control of New Mexico, con’t • By 1847, Texas had a new governor • George Wood • He vowed to continue to fight for control of New Mexico to strengthen claims to New Mexico, Texas created • counties of Worth, Presidio, Santa Fe, and El Paso in disputed area • Texas was only able to agree to get El Paso to agree to be in Texas • But, by gaining El Paso, Texas secured land west of Pecos River for Texas

  31. Disagreements over Slavery and Territories • Texas still a problem for the US • Zachary Taylor became US president in 1848 • He had to deal with issues with territories • Taylor agreed to let California become a part of the US as a Free State • Free State: state that didn’t support slavery

  32. Disagreements over Slavery and Territories, con’t • But, if California came into to US as a Free State, then there would be more free states than slave states (wanted it to be equal number) • Pro-Slavery states (like Texas) didn’t want California to be admitted to US • Also, people in New Mexico and Utah territories wanted to become part of US • In Washington DC, the abolitionists wanted slavery outlawed • Abolitionist: person who wanted to end slavery

  33. Disagreements over Slavery and Territories, con’t • The dispute over the western border of Texas added to problem of slavery • Because Texas was a slave state, many people in US wanted to limit the size of Texas • President Taylor and US Congress disagreed on how to handle all of these problems • President Taylor wanted California admitted to US immediately • He argued that people of California were struggling with problems after the Gold Rush of 1848 and needed to a state government to help the people out • He had also promised the residents of California that they would be admitted to US

  34. Disagreements over Slavery and Territories, con’t • But, many people in the US Congress wanted to wait until the issue over slavery was settled before admitting any more states into the US • Southern members of the US Congress wanted federal government help in finding runaway slaves • This law became known as the Fugitive Slave Law

  35. Disagreements over Slavery and Territories, con’t • So, a Senator from Kentucky offered a compromise • Henry Clay • AKA “The Great Compromiser” • Worked out a solution to all of the disagreements • He proposed: • California be admitted to US as a free state • That territories of Utah and New Mexico be organized and the citizens could decide for themselves whether to be a free state or a slave state • Wanted the slave trade in Washington DC to be abolished

  36. Disagreements over Slavery and Territories, con’t • He proposed (continued) • That the Fugitive Slave Law be put into effect • To settle the “Texas Question”, he wanted Texas to give up about 40% of land in the west for about 10 million dollars • Slavery was an issue in this, too, because of the decision about slavery for New Mexico

  37. The Compromise of 1850 • Before President Taylor would even talk about Henry Clay’s proposals, he demanded that California be admitted into the Union • But, before any other action was taken, President Taylor died • Vice President Millard Fillmore took over as President of US

  38. The Compromise of 1850, con’t • Then, Henry Clay decided he was tired and wanted to leave Washington DC • Senator Stephen A .Douglas (of Illinois) picked up where Henry Clay left off with the compromise issues • Congress finally passed the Compromise of 1850

  39. Provisions of the Compromise of 1850 • California became a state in the US—a free state • New Mexico and Utah became US Territories • Slave trade (but not slavery itself) was abolished in Washington DC • Fugitive Slave Law went into effect • “Texas Question” was settled: Texas gave up some of its land to north and west and received 10 million dollars • The money helped pay off debt • The Texas and New Mexico Act of September 9, 1850 was put into effect • This act created the present day borders of Texas

  40. TEXAS AND THE COMPROMISE OF 1850 The Compromise of 1850, con’t • Provisions of the Compromise of 1850 • California became a state • Utah and New Mexico became territories • Slave trade was ended in Washington DC • Fugitive Slave Law was put into place • “Texas Question”: Texas received 10 million dollars to give up disputed territory to north and west • Getting the money helped Texas get out of debt • Texas and New Mexico Act of September 9, 1850: created Texas’ present day borders

  41. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:12_Millard_Fillmore_3x4.jpghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:12_Millard_Fillmore_3x4.jpg http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/B/hclay/hclay.htm President Millard Fillmore Henry Clay http://www.shmoop.com/causes-of-civil-war/photo-stephen-douglas.html Stephen A. Douglas

  42. The Compromise of 1850 http://www.ushistory.org/us/30d.asp http://www.us-coin-values-advisor.com/the-nation-drifts-toward-war.html http://www.us-coin-values-advisor.com/the-nation-drifts-toward-war.html http://www.ushistory.org/us/30d.asp