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Chapter 10. Team Development Interventions. Learning Objectives. Identify how team development techniques fit into OD program. Recognize team problems and why teams may not be operating at optimum capacity. Understand and experience process of team development. North Dallas Forty.

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Chapter 10 l.jpg

Chapter 10

Team Development Interventions

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Learning Objectives

  • Identify how team development techniques fit into OD program.

  • Recognize team problems and why teams may not be operating at optimum capacity.

  • Understand and experience process of team development.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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North Dallas Forty

North Dallas Forty is book and movie.

Based on life of a Dallas Cowboys professional football player.

Illustrates behind-the-scenes look at team effort involved in running football play.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Organizing Around Teams

A team is a group of individuals:

  • with complementary skills

  • who depend upon one another to accomplish common purpose

  • for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Teamwork

Teamwork is work done when members subordinate personal prominence for team.

Many management theorists see team-based organization as wave of future.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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The Team Approach

Many organizations increase productivity by implementing team-based programs.

Interdependence refers to situations where one person’s performance contingent upon how someone else performs.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Organizations Use Sport Teams As a Model

Baseball - pooled interdependence where team member contributions somewhat independent of one another.

Football - involves sequential interdependence.

Basketball - exhibits highest degree of interdependence.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Major OD Technique Is Team Building

Team building and team development used interchangeably.

Team building is where members of work group examine goals and culture to improve ability to work together.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Reasons for Using Team Development

Work group is basic unit of organization and provides supportive change factor.

Operating problems of work groups often sources of inefficiency.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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OD in PracticeCup of Joe at Starbucks (part 1 of 2)

CEO Schultz has strong vision for Starbucks.

Starbucks mission statement includes “Provide a great work environment and treat each other with respect and dignity.”

Starbucks philosophy is “Leave no one behind.”

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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OD in Practice (part 2 of 2)

Employee surveys rank Starbucks ahead of other companies.

Two reasons why people work for Starbucks:

“The opportunity to work with an enthusiastic team.”

“To work in a place where I feel I have value.”

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Need for Team Development

Teams are primary unit in organization.

Two types of teams:

  • Natural work team.

  • Temporary task team.

    Need for team development varies with situation.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Three Categories Requiring Teams

  • Simple.

  • Complex.

  • Problem.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Figure 10.1Situation Determines Teamwork

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Simple Situations

People working alone and no need to involve others.

Little team development necessary.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Complex Situations

Information must be shared to complete task but interaction not on deeply personal level.

Some team development necessary.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Problem Situations

Unusual and unprecedented situations having impact outside individual’s scope of influence.

Requires team development approach.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Operating Problems of Teams(part 1 of 2)

Goals - groups lose purpose and direction.

Member needs - interpersonal differences.

Norms - lack of norms and acceptable behavior.

Homogeneous members - tend to produce homogeneous ideas.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Operating Problems of Teams(part 2 of 2)

Decision making - authoritative decision making.

Leadership - degree of power and control of members inappropriate.

Size - number of members too small or too large for effective interaction.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Figure 10.2Sources of Team Problems

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Cohesiveness and Groupthink(part 1 of 2)

Cohesiveness refers to unity that members of group have for one another.

A high degree of cohesiveness can result in groupthink.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Cohesiveness and Groupthink(part 2 of 2)

Groupthink is deterioration of reality testing that results from group pressures.

Likely to happen when agreement becomes dominant force.

Groupthink tends to outweigh consideration of alternatives.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Illusion of invulnerability.

Rationalization.

Illusion of morality.

Shared stereotypes.

Direct pressure.

Self-censorship.

Illusion of unanimity.

Mind guards.

Eight Characteristics of Groupthink

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Purpose of Team Development

To integrate goals of individual and group with goals of organization.

Team development one of most widely used OD activities.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Team Development Involves:(part 1 of 2)

  • Identify objectives, set priorities.

  • Examine team performance.

  • Analyze group process.

  • Improve communications.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Team Development Involves:(part 2 of 2)

  • Improve problem-solving ability.

  • Increase cooperation.

  • Work more effectively with other teams.

  • Increase respect of other team members.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Two Types of Activities

  • Family group diagnostic meetings.

    Aimed at identifying group problems.

  • Family group team-building meetings.

    Aimed at improving team’s functioning.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Team Development MeetingHas Two Objectives

  • Task or work agenda of group.

  • Processes by which members work on the task.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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General Procedure of Training

Step 1: Initiate team development meeting.

Step 2: Set objectives.

Step 3: Collect data.

Step 4: Plan the meeting.

Step 5: Conduct the meeting.

Step 6: Evaluate team development process.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Our Changing World: Electronic Team Development (part 1 of 2)

Computers and Internet bring change to way work is done.

Internet presents unique opportunities for companies connected by computers.

IBM brings groups of more than 7,000 together on the Internet.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Our Changing World (part 2 of 2)

The GE approach:

Worldwide program of suppliers and customers.

Goal is to improve information sharing.

The P&G approach:

Researchers worldwide meet on company Web.

Schedules meetings devoted to specific subject.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Outdoor Experiential Laboratory Training

Takes people who work together and places in outdoor setting with experiential exercises.

Seems to hasten discussions surrounding leadership styles and team work.

After exercise team discusses what they learned and how it applies to work.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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The Outdoor Lab Process

  • Assessment of team made prior to training.

  • Orientation meeting held with participants.

  • Exercises selected to fit abilities of team.

  • The team participates in exercises.

  • Team reflects on process.

  • Team follows with goal setting and plans.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Cautions When Using Outdoor Labs

Safety is major concern.

Participation is voluntary.

Participants should have fun and labs not become too serious.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Role Negotiation As Team Development

Directed at work relationships among team members.

Members discuss what they want from one another and why.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Role Negotiations Includes:

  • Contract setting.

  • Issue diagnosis.

  • Role negotiation.

  • Written role negotiation agreement.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Role Analysis As Team Development

Designed to clarify roles of team members.

Role ambiguity - team member not fully knowing what others expect.

Role conflict - difference between expectations of team member and actual behavior.

Role analysis used to clarify role discrepancies.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Steps in Role Analysis

  • Role analysis.

  • Role incumbent expectations of others.

  • Others expectations of role incumbent.

  • Role profile.

    Above steps are followed until each member completes role profile.

    Role profiles are periodically reviewed.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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KEY WORDS AND CONCEPTS

  • Group cohesiveness - attractiveness group has for its members.

  • Groupthink - describes the problems of group cohesiveness.

  • Interdependence - person’s performance contingent upon how someone else performs.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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  • Natural work team - people coming together because of the related jobs.

  • Outdoor experiential laboratory training -people who work together placed in outdoor setting and allowed to experiment with leadership styles and teamwork.

  • Role ambiguity - role incumbent unaware of expectations by others.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition


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Preparations for Next Chapter prominence for good of team.

  • Read Chapter 11.

  • Prepare for OD Skills Simulation 11.1.

  • Read and analyze Case: The Exley Chemical Company.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition