Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction: Harper’s Weekly, March 17, 1877
The Great Railroad Strike of 1877: “Colonel Agramonte’s Cavalry Charging on the Mob, at the Halstead street Viaduct, in Chicago, July 16,” Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, August 11, 1877
Population growth: “Great Railway Station at Chicago--Departure of a Train,” Appleton’s Journal, 1870 supplement
National markets: The first national brand, Uneeda Biscuit (1898, ad from 1900)
Capital: The race is on: "Admiral" Jim Fisk of the ERIE vs. Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt New York Central Lines.
Labor: The Celebration of the Meeting of the Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads at Promontory Point, Utah, May 10, 1869.
Corporations had the same rights as persons The 14th amendment: “Section. 1. …No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” US Supreme Court, 1886, Santa Clara County vs. Southern Pacific RR co. “The defendant Corporations are persons within the intent of the clause in section 1 of the Fourteen Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which forbids a State to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”
Henry Adams Criticized Corporations in His Autobiography, The Education of Henry Adams, 1918
Herbert Spencer, author of social Darwinist doctrines of “survival of the fittest and “laissez faire”
Andrew Carnegie, Scottish immigrant who built a “vertically integrated” steel company that dominated the steel industry in the laste 19th century
Conspicuous Display of Wealth, Millionaire’s Row, New York Carnegie Mansion Vanderbilt Chateau
“Driving the Rioters from Turner Hall,” Harper’s Weekly, August 18, 1877
“The First Dynamite Bomb Thrown in America,” Chicago Inter-Ocean Supplement, 1886
John D. Rockefeller Founds a Day Nursery for Children of Working Italian Women, 1895
U.S. Presidents, 1877-Present Rutherford B. Hayes, 1877-1881 James Garfield, 1881 Chester Arthur, 1881-1885 Grover Cleveland, 1885-1889 Benjamin Harrison, 1889-1993 Grover Cleveland, 1993-1997 William McKinley, 1897-1901 Theodore Roosevelt, 1901-1909 William H. Taft, 1909-1913 Woodrow Wilson, 1913-1921 Warren Harding, 1921-1923 Calvin Coolidge, 1923-1929 Herbert Hoover, 1929-1933 Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1933-1945 Harry Truman, 1945-1953 Dwight Eisenhower, 1953-1961 John F. Kennedy, 1961-1963 Lyndon Johnson, 1963-1969 Richard Nixon, 1969-1974 Gerald Ford, 1974-77 Jimmy Carter, 1977-1981 Ronald Reagan, 1981-1989 George H.W. Bush, 1989-1993 William J. Clinton, 1993-2001 George W. Bush, 2001-present