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The Gilded Age and Industrialization

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  1. The Gilded AgeandIndustrialization

  2. Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction: Harper’s Weekly, March 17, 1877

  3. The Great Railroad Strike of 1877: “Colonel Agramonte’s Cavalry Charging on the Mob, at the Halstead street Viaduct, in Chicago, July 16,” Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, August 11, 1877

  4. Major railroads in 1880 with time zones

  5. Population growth: “Great Railway Station at Chicago--Departure of a Train,” Appleton’s Journal, 1870 supplement

  6. Government support: Land grants to the railroads

  7. Invention: Thomas Edison with the light bulb, invented in 1879

  8. National markets: The first national brand, Uneeda Biscuit (1898, ad from 1900)

  9. Sears and Roebuck Catalog, 1900

  10. Gilded Age: Who coined the term?

  11. Mark Twain

  12. Capital: The race is on: "Admiral" Jim Fisk of the ERIE vs. Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt New York Central Lines.

  13. Labor: The Celebration of the Meeting of the Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads at Promontory Point, Utah, May 10, 1869.

  14. A. J. Russell, “Chinese at Laying Last Rail UPRR,” stereoview

  15. John D. Rockefeller, Portrait by John Singer Sargent, 1917

  16. Corporations had the same rights as persons The 14th amendment: “Section. 1. …No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” US Supreme Court, 1886, Santa Clara County vs. Southern Pacific RR co. “The defendant Corporations are persons within the intent of the clause in section 1 of the Fourteen Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which forbids a State to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”

  17. Next! Cartoon in Puck, September 7, 1904

  18. Henry Adams Criticized Corporations in His Autobiography, The Education of Henry Adams, 1918

  19. Charles Darwin, author of The Origin of Species (1859)

  20. Herbert Spencer, author of social Darwinist doctrines of “survival of the fittest and “laissez faire”

  21. Skull Types

  22. Andrew Carnegie, Scottish immigrant who built a “vertically integrated” steel company that dominated the steel industry in the laste 19th century

  23. Horatio Alger books promoted rags to riches stories

  24. Conspicuous Display of Wealth, Millionaire’s Row, New York Carnegie Mansion Vanderbilt Chateau

  25. Jacob Riis, Five Cents Lodging, Bayard Street, c. 1889

  26. “Driving the Rioters from Turner Hall,” Harper’s Weekly, August 18, 1877

  27. “The Haymarket Riot,” Harper’s Weekly, May 15, 1886

  28. “The Haymarket Martyrs,” Anarchy and Anarchists, 1889

  29. “The First Dynamite Bomb Thrown in America,” Chicago Inter-Ocean Supplement, 1886

  30. Pin Protesting the Executions, Inscribed “Nov. 11, 1887”

  31. “Justice Hurling a Bomb,” Graphic News, June 5, 1886

  32. The Pullman Strike, 1893-1894

  33. John D. Rockefeller Founds a Day Nursery for Children of Working Italian Women, 1895

  34. U.S. Presidents, 1877-Present Rutherford B. Hayes, 1877-1881 James Garfield, 1881 Chester Arthur, 1881-1885 Grover Cleveland, 1885-1889 Benjamin Harrison, 1889-1993 Grover Cleveland, 1993-1997 William McKinley, 1897-1901 Theodore Roosevelt, 1901-1909 William H. Taft, 1909-1913 Woodrow Wilson, 1913-1921 Warren Harding, 1921-1923 Calvin Coolidge, 1923-1929 Herbert Hoover, 1929-1933 Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1933-1945 Harry Truman, 1945-1953 Dwight Eisenhower, 1953-1961 John F. Kennedy, 1961-1963 Lyndon Johnson, 1963-1969 Richard Nixon, 1969-1974 Gerald Ford, 1974-77 Jimmy Carter, 1977-1981 Ronald Reagan, 1981-1989 George H.W. Bush, 1989-1993 William J. Clinton, 1993-2001 George W. Bush, 2001-present