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French Revolution & Napoleon 1789-1815

French Revolution & Napoleon 1789-1815. Mr. Bausback Class Notes- Ch’s 3 & 4 SS 9. Background to the Revolution. Economic Problems & Food Shortages:. The French government was bankrupt King Louis XIV raised money through taxes Ordinary people did not want to have to pay

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French Revolution & Napoleon 1789-1815

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  1. French Revolution & Napoleon 1789-1815 Mr. Bausback Class Notes- Ch’s 3 & 4 SS 9

  2. Background to the Revolution

  3. Economic Problems & Food Shortages: • The French government was bankrupt • King Louis XIV raised money through taxes • Ordinary people did not want to have to pay • Because of bad harvests, food was in short supply • Finance minister, Robert Turgot, suggested that the nobles should be taxed; the nobles opposed him and he was dismissed

  4. Government & Society • French King was an ABSOLUTE MONARCH • French society was divided into three groups called estates • First Estate – consisted of the priests or clergy; paid no taxes; collected a tax (called a TITHE) from the Third Estate • Second Estate – consisted of the nobles; paid no taxes, but could collect taxes from the peasants who worked for them • Third Estate – consisted of the ordinary people, people such as shop-keepers, bakers, tradesmen, farm workers; they were heavily taxed • This traditional political and social system of France is called the Old Regime

  5. A Moderate Start to the Revolution

  6. The King Calls Meeting of the Three Estates • Representatives of the three estates had not met together since 1614 • Because of the economic problems Louis XVI called the Estates General 1789 • In the Estates General, each estate had a vote and the First and Second Estates usually out-voted the Third estate • Unhappy with the Third Estate declared themselves to be a NATIONAL ASSEMBLY-their own government • The king ordered the other two estates to join the Third Estate

  7. Reforms of the National Assembly • August 26, 1789 – Declaration of the Rights of Man; the declaration contained basic principles such as: • “All persons are held innocent until they shall have been declared guilty” • “no person shall be accused, arrested or imprisoned except in the cases and according to the forms prescribed by law” • 1790 – Civil Constitution of the Clergy – government controlled Church; citizens elected bishops and priests; government sold Church lands; Catholics opposed reform • 1791 – The Constitution – France’s first constitution; limited the power of the king; king was now a constitutional monarch; distinction between clergy, nobles and ordinary people removed; guaranteed equal rights under the law

  8. Popular Uprisings • Changes in the structure of government take time • The poor people saw no immediate improvement to their condition, and were scared of king’s powers • July 14, 1789, a Paris crowd marched to the big prison in Paris called the Bastille; prisoners were released; killed the governor of the prison • July and August 1789, peasants in the countryside attacked their landlords and refused to pay any more taxes • October, 1789, a Paris crowd marched to Versailles and insisted that the king be removed • June, 1791, the royal family, disguised, tried to leave Paris and get to Austria, the home country of the Queen; they were discovered and taken back to Paris

  9. Assignment: • Read page 57 & 58 Testing a Hypothesis Using Maps • Answer questions Your Turn #’s 1-5 • Question #’s 3-5 can be answered with a partner (but you are responsible for all answers) • Assignment due next class • Emilie questions 1-4 will also be due next class • Good luck and enjoy the game- Go Trojans!

  10. The Revolution Deepens

  11. France at War • Kings in other parts of Europe felt threatened by the success of the revolution; wanted to come to the support of the French royal family • August 1792, armies from Austria and Prussia were advancing on Paris. • In September, the French armies defeated the invaders forcing the invading armies to retreat

  12. The National Assembly • Radical thinkers – those who wanted drastic change in government • Took control of the National Assembly and called for a National convention to write a new constitution • The National Convention voted to: • abolish the monarchy • declared France a republic • Execute the King Louis XVI – was guillotined on January 21, 1793 • Abolish all remaining feudal colonies • Sell the land of the nobles who had left the country

  13. The Reign of Terror • Social and political situation in France was so chaotic that a the Committee of public Safety was set up • Committee suspended or ignored the Constitution and arrested and executed hundreds of people who were thought to be enemies of the revolution • This period of arrest and execution became known as the Reign of Terror • The Reign of Terror ended in 1794 with the execution of Maximilien Robespierre, the leader of the committee of public safety

  14. The Directory • The constitution of 1795 established a new governing body for France- the directory; governed France from 1794 until 1799 • The Directory was made up a small group of people who made decisions similar to a council • Directory was weak and divided and eventually overthrown by Napoleon Bonaparte

  15. Napoleon Bonaparte

  16. Rise to Power • Born on the island of Corsica in 1769 • Trained at a French military academy • Became general by age 27 • Defeated Austrian forces, although he could not defeat British at sea • Overthrew the directory, declared himself first consul

  17. Domestic Policies • Introduced a code of laws know as Napoleonic code • Required all citizens to pay taxes • Established schools, open through scholarships of poor as well as the rich • Formed an agreement (concordat) with the Catholic Church • Declared himself emperor of France in 1804

  18. Policy Abroad • A brilliant general, napoleon Defeated the Austrian and Prussian Armies • He formed agreements and alliances with other nations, so they would not plot against him • He could not defeat Britain however, because of the strength of the British navy

  19. Downfall of Napoleon • Countries defeated an governed by Napoleon began to feel nationalistic, proud of their own nations and resentful to the French • Revolts broke out al over Europe • Russia defeated the Grand Army of napoleon when it invaded Russia in 1812 • Combined forces of Britain, Austria Russia and Prussia defeated the French army Napoleon was sent into exile on the island of Elba, off the coast of Italy • He escaped and returned to lead the French army, but was defeated at the battle of Waterloo in 1815 • He was exiled and died in 1821

  20. Legacy of the French revolution and Napoleon… • End of feudalism in France • End of absolute monarchy in France • Spread of revolutionary ideas through rest of Europe • Code Napoleon – French Civil Code • Strengthened of the ideas of: • Liberalism: a belief in individual freedom and the right to work for political and social reform • Nationalism: a belief and pride in one’s country; the right of one’s country to be self-governing

  21. The End!

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