The impact of urbanisation and changing lifestyles. Urbanisation. Related to the development of towns and cities ( including residential areas). 2% of Australia is urbanised Effects of the processes since European settlement have been enormous. Australia is rural.
Urbanisation • Related to the development of towns and cities ( including residential areas). • 2% of Australia is urbanised • Effects of the processes since European settlement have been enormous. • Australia is rural. • We prefer to live in towns and cities
In the Past • Access to inland Australia is limited. • Cities have more opportunities. • 1840 1/3rd of the population lived in Sydney. • Today: 90% of the population live in cities. • Settlers migrated to Aust with the hope of owing land. • Rapid growth in the 1880’s
Growth • Growth caused: • development of extensive housing estates • Building frenzies • Extinguishing nearly all the signs of the natural environment. • Good agriculture land was used for urban development
No planning • Situated around railway stations. • Public amenities: running water, sewage treatment were in scant supply ( or non-existent) • Up until 1830’s water had to be collect from heavily polluted streams. • In Melbourne waste was carried along open gutters into the Yarra River. • Continued into the 20th Century.
Impacts • Habitat loss – through clearing of vegetation and excavation. • Land clearing • Mining • Erosion of creeks and other watercourses • Lack of dead wood and other forest little • Introduction of weeds • Loss of topsoil
Impacts • Local waterways were dumping grounds for waste. • Decline of species • Increased siltation • Rising salt levels • Loss of stream vegetation • Chemical run-off such as pesticides, fertilizers and herbicides • Water was undrinkable
Research exercise • When was your town or suburb established? • What groups initially inhabited the area? • What is the major industry or employer in the area? • How has the population changed over time? • What issues have influenced this change? • What natural features remain in the area? • Where does the town’s water supply come from? • Where does wastewater and other refuse go to be treated?