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PROTISTS AND FUNGI. Fungi Kingdom. Eukaryotes Use spores to reproduce Heterotrophs that feed in a similar way Need warm, moist places to grow Examples: yeast, molds, mildew, and mushrooms. Kingdom Fungi. The word Fungus comes from Latin word meaning sponge.The plural of fungus is fungi.

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fungi kingdom
Fungi Kingdom
  • Eukaryotes
  • Use spores to reproduce
  • Heterotrophs that feed in a similar way
  • Need warm, moist places to grow
  • Examples: yeast, molds, mildew, and mushrooms
kingdom fungi
Kingdom Fungi
  • The word Fungus comes from Latin word meaning sponge.The plural of fungus is fungi.
  • Like plants,fungi often grow in soil but they cannot make food from sunlight.
  • The stalk and the head of the toadstool are the fungi's fruiting body .This releases tiny spores.New fungus grow from these.Fungi begin to reproduce when one mass of underground threads meet another (+ & - strains) of the same species they grow and produce a new fruiting body.
slide5

The fungal hyphae grows into food then secrete digestive chemicals into food & absorb it

  • Stolons – horizontal hyphae
  • Rhizoids- hyphae forming rootlike structures
fungi obtaining food
Fungi -Obtaining food
  • Use a structure called hyphae to get their food.
  • Except for yeast which are unicellular.
  • Hyphae: threadlike, cytoplasm-filled tubes with nuclei
  • Shape of fungi depends on how hyphae used.
fungi classification by reproduction
Fungi Classification by Reproduction
  • People used to think that fungi were plants. But because they are absorptive heterotrophs they are not producers and are consumers instead
  • They have cell walls made of chitin--a polysacchride like sugar or starch (instead of cellulose in plant cells)
  • Fungi are classified by how they reproduce. They produce ascospores (yeast) basidiospores, (mushrooms) , zygospores (bread mold), fungi imperfecti (yeast infections)
reproduction in fungi
Reproduction in Fungi
  • Produce thousands of spores with a protective covering: carried by water and air.
  • spores land in a warm, moist place they form more fungi
slide9

Reproduction in Fungi

  • When there is plenty of moisture, fungi reproduce asexually by releasing spores.
  • When conditions are not good, they reproduce sexually.
slide10

Yeast are unicellular, they reproduce by budding. A well fed cell grows from the body of the mother cell and breaks off from the mother.

four classifications of fungi
Four classifications of Fungi
  • Threadlike - produce spores in their threadlike hyphae (ex. Bread mold)
  • Saclike - produce spores in structures that look like sacs (ex. Yeast)
slide12

Club - produce spores in structures that look like clubs (ex. Mushrooms)

  • Imperfect - those that cannot reproduce sexually (ex. Penicillin)
harmful fungi
Harmful Fungi
  • Many mushrooms are poisonous, hallucinogens and even fatal (Amanita--> death cap)
  • Many fungi are parasitic and cause diseases like ringworm, athletes foot,
  • Can rot and contaminate foods
  • Can destroy almost every type of product or food aside from some plastics
  • Black Mold in Buildings
  • Building a House: Recipe for Disaster
beneficial fungi
Beneficial Fungi
  • The mycorrhizal fungi live as partners with plants, helping them absorb nutrients
  • People eat mushrooms, truffles and other fungi, citric acid in Coke
  • Fungi are decomposers like bacteria and help to recycle organic matter to inorganic = saprophytic
  • Yeasts are used in making bread, wine, beer, solvents, cheese.
  • Drugs made from fungi cure diseases and stop the rejection of transplanted hearts and other organs.
  • Fungi are also grown in large vats to produce flavorings for cooking, vitamins and enzymes for removing stains.
  • Beneficial Protists & Fungi
kingdom protista
Kingdom Protista
  • All protists are eukaryotes. This means that their cells contain a nucleus, a membrane-bounded structure that encloses the cell's genetic material.
  • Some protists are autotrophs like plants, others are consumers like animals. Unlike plants and animals, however, protists do not have cells organized into specialized tissues.
protista classified by nutrition
Protista Classified by Nutrition
  • The first detailed descriptions of protists were made in 1676 by the inventor of the microscope, Dutch naturalist Leewenhoek.
  • The term Protista was first used in 1862 by the German biologist Haeckel to describe microscopic organisms that were neither animallike nor plantlike
  • The classification is currently based on the structure and organization of the cell, the presence of organelles, and the pattern of reproduction or life cycles. The five-kingdom system divides the Protista into 27 phyla. However, classifications based on comparisons of cell physiology and DNA sequences suggest that many protist phyla may be sufficiently large and diverse to be classified as kingdoms.
3 categories of protists
3 categories of Protists:
  • Animal-like
  • Fungus-like
  • Plant-like
slide18
AutotrophicProtists are called “Algae”. Scientists believe they gave rise to the kingdome Plantae
  • IngestiveHeterotrophic protists are called “Protozoa”. Scientists believe they gave rise to the kingdom Animalia
  • Absorptive heterotrophic protists are called “Slimemolds”. Scientists believe they gave rise to the kingdom Fungi
animal like protists protozoans
Animal-like Protists (Protozoans)

*Unicellular Heterotrophs

*Four groups based on movement: those with flagella, cilia, pseudopods, and the ‘others’.

protozoans with pseudopods
Protozoans with Pseudopods
  • Pseudopods also called ‘false feet’
  • Cell membrane pushes in one direction & the cytoplasm flows into the bulge.
  • This allows the protozoan to move, dragging the rest of the cell behind it.
slide21

Pseudopod Movement

EXAMPLE OF HOW PSEUDOPODS MOVE

FLOW

PUSH

DRAG

slide22

Pseudopods & Feeding

They can form pseudopods to surround & trap food. Then form a food vacuole to break down food in the cytoplasm.

slide23

Pseudopods

  • Reproduce by mitosis
  • Contractile vacuole - it collects extra H2O & expels it from cell
  • Thin cell membrane
  • No definite shape.
  • Example - Amoeba
protozoans with cilia
Protozoans with cilia
  • Cilia - hairlike structures - help organisms move, get food and sense environment.
  • Multicellular with 2 nuclei.
  • 1 nuclei controls everyday functions
  • 1 nuclei is for reproduction.
  • Reproduce by mitosis or

conjugation.

ciliates
Ciliates
  • Oral groove lined with cilia - moves H20 containing food into food vacuole at end of oral groove.
  • Food vacuole breaks down food and sends through cell.
  • Anal pore sends out waste.
  • Example of protozoan w/ cilia: paramecium.
slide26

CONTRACTILE

VACUOLE

CILIA

FOOD

VACUOLE

ORAL GROOVE

FOOD

VACUOLE

ANAL PORE

protozoans with flagella
Protozoans with flagella
  • Organisms called zooflagellates
  • Use long whiplike part called flagella to move.
  • These usually live inside other organisms.
other protozoans
Other Protozoans
  • Called sporozoans - parasites
  • Feed on cells & body fluids of hosts
  • Sporozoans like Plasmodium (causes malaria) have more than 1 host: mosquitoes and then humans
funguslike protists
Funguslike Protists
  • Like animals, they are heterotrophs
  • Like plants, they have cell walls
  • Reproduce by spores (tiny cells that can grow into a new organism)
  • Not in fungi kingdom because they can move at one point in their lives.
  • Example are water or slime molds.
plantlike protists
Plantlike Protists
  • Better known as algae
  • Autotrophs
  • Size: unicellular to very large
  • Contain different pigments so they come in different colors.
  • Euglena: special type of algae -when there is no sunlight they become heterotrophic.
beneficial protists
Beneficial Protists
  • Used as insect pathogens
  • used in ice cream, soups, nori (seaweed in sushi), jello, agar, vitamin supplements
  • ancient dinoflagellates formed oil deposits
  • bioluminescent
  • diatoms mined for fine abrasives in silver polish and toothpaste and as packing in air and water filters
  • marine phytoplankton make up ~70% of the oxygen on the planet

Diatom Detectives

harmful protists
Harmful Protists
  • Produce a nerve poison in shellfish that kills humans and fish in red tide
  • Cause diseases: Chaga’sdisease, Malaria, 2, Lyme disease, diarrhea, toxoplasmosis, dysentary, Trypanosomaisis, 2, Leishmaniasis, 2, Toxoplasma, Cryptospiridium, Leishmaniasis, Brain Amoeba
  • Cause mold and mildew which can spoil food and cause allergic reactions
similarities and differences in the protist kingdom
Similarities and Differences in the Protist Kingdom
  • All are eukaryotes (cells with nuclei).
  • Live in moist surroundings.
  • Unicellular or multicellular.
  • Autotrophs, heterotrophs, or both.
  • Some can move - others cannot.