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CHAPTER 17. The Principle of Linear Superposition and Interference Phenomena. Interference Constructive and Destructive Interference: BEATS Standing Waves: Transverse-Stringed Instruments and Longitudinal-Wind Instruments. Diffraction Speakers. 17.6  Longitudinal Standing Waves .

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the principle of linear superposition and interference phenomena

CHAPTER 17

The Principle of Linear Superposition and Interference Phenomena

Interference

Constructive and Destructive Interference: BEATS

Standing Waves:

Transverse-Stringed Instruments

and

Longitudinal-Wind Instruments.

Diffraction

Speakers

17 6 longitudinal standing waves
17.6 Longitudinal Standing Waves

Musical instruments in the wind family depend on longitudinal standing waves in producing sound. Since wind instruments (trumpet, flute, clarinet, pipe organ, etc.) are modified tubes or columns of air, it is useful to examine the standing waves that can be set up in such tubes.

open tube of air
Open tube of air

A pictorial representation of longitudinal standing waves on a Slinky (left side) and in a tube of air (right side) that is open at both ends (A, antinode; N, node).

closed tube of air
Closed tube of air

A pictorial representation of the longitudinal standing waves on a Slinky (left side) and in a tube of air (right side) that is open only at one end (A, antinode; N, node).

17 7 complex sound waves
17.7 Complex Sound Waves

The soundwave corresponding to a note produced by a musical instrument or a singer is called a complex sound wave.

It consists of a mixture of the fundamental and harmonic frequencies.

fourier synthesis
Fourier Synthesis

http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/viewtopic.php?t=33

spectrum analyzer
Spectrum Analyzer

A microphone detects a complex soundwave, and a spectrum analyzer determines the amplitude and frequency of each harmonic present in the wave.

problem 36
Problem 36

Sound enters the ear, travels through the auditory canal, and reaches the eardrum. The auditory canal is approximately a tube open at only one end. The other end is closed by the eardrum. A typical length for the auditory canal in an adult is about 2.9 cm. The speed of sound is 343 m/s. What is the fundamental frequency of the canal? (Interestingly, the fundamental frequency is in the frequency range where human hearing is most sensitive.)