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How to Reference Using APA. References. APA stands for the American Psychological Association APA style calls its bibliography or works cited section: References. Alphabetize according to author‘s last name, company‘s name or internet title. References, cont.

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  • APA stands for the American Psychological Association
  • APA style calls its bibliography or works cited section: References.
  • Alphabetize according to author‘s last name, company‘s name or internet title
references cont
References, cont.
  • Is printed on its on piece of paper
  • Comes at the end of the paper
  • Follows the style of APA
reference for a book
Reference for a Book

Nicol, A. A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: Apractical guide for creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

  • In-text citation of a book would appear as Nicol and Pexman (1999) or (Nicol & Pexman, 1999).
reference for an article
Reference for an Article

Fine, M. A., & Kurdek, L. A. (1993). Reflections on determining authorship

credit and authorship order on faculty-student collaborations. American Psychologist, 48(1), 1141-1147.

  • In-text citation of a journal article would appear as Fine and Kurdek (1993) or (Fine & Kurdek, 1993).
references for secondary source
References for Secondary Source

When citing a secondary source, in-text citation would appear as the following:

Seidenburg and McClelland’s study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993, pp. 589-608)

Reference entry would look like this:

Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589-608.

reference for online article
Reference for Online Article

VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates [Electronic version]. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123.

  • In-text citation would appear as

VandenBos, Knapp and Doe (2001) or (VandenBox, Knapp, & Doe, 2001).

referencing no editor or author
Referencing: No editor or author

Merriam-Webster‘s collegiate dictionary (10th.ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

  • In-text citation is written as Merriam-Webster (1993) or (Merriam-Webster, 1993).
  • Note that proper nouns are capitalized in books despite which position the word has!
religious text
Religious Text

1 Correnthians, 13:1 (Revised Standard Version)

The Holy Quran, 4:50

Mishna Torah, Laws of Prayer, 13:6

referencing an internet site
Referencing an Internet Site

New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001). Retrieved from

http://news. health/story_13178.asp

In-text citation would appear as “New child vaccine” (2001) or (“New child,” 2001).

  • APA uses only two words in the citation; however, it is permissible to use up to five words.
online article
Online Article

Brown, G. T. (2010, April 1). Lufthansa bounces back. Retrieved from


referencing film and television
Referencing Film and Television

Scorsese, M. (Producer), & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000). You can count on me [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount.

Hall, B. (Writer/Director/Producer). (1991). The Rules of the Game [Television series episode No. 1]. In J. Sander (Producer) I‘ll fly away. New York: ABC Television.


The abbreviation, ed. stands for edition.

APA (2001). Presenting your finds (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: APA Press.

The abbreviation, Ed. or Eds. Stands for

editor (s).

Brown, A., & Black, T. (Eds.) The tradition of colors in weddings. St. Helen, MI: University Press.

what is the doi system
What is the DOI System?

The DOI is the abbreviation for digital object identifier. DOI systems can be found online under sites such as CrossRef. The official website is:

who developed doi
Who developed DOI?
  • DOI was developed by international publishers as a way to digitally identify and manage books and periodicals that are published or put on the internet.
  • The registration agency, the International DOI Foundation, is the governing body and assigns the DOI identity code.
what does the doi system do
What does the DOI System do?
  • It identifies electronic information by assigning them a ten digit DOI identity number. This number uses an alphanumeric string to catalog electronic information.
  • The DOI system establishes a permanent link to a source.
where do i find the doi reference of an article
Where do I find the DOI reference of an article?

The DOI can usually be found as part of the general description of a book or periodical. That is after the information on author, title of book, article title and journal title. Although it was stated that ten digits are used, the DOI could be longer. In the reference section, it is the last piece of information of a reference.

what does this mean for me
What does this mean for me?

There are several changes in how the information in the reference section of a paper appear. These changes may reduce or add to the amount of information that is needed.

something to remember
Something to Remember!

Not all books and periodicals have a DOI assigned. This is especially true for information published before 2000! Therefore, the established rules still apply. Don‘t waste your time looking for a DOI! There may not be one!

referencing doi for books
Referencing DOI for Books

Author, A. A. (2009). Title. doi: 12.3456/78910

Author, B. B. (1985). Title. City, State: Publisher. doi: 12.3456/78910

Author, D. D. (1976). Title [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi: 10.1036/007139722

referencing doi for book chapters
Referencing DOI for Book Chapters

Author, A. A. (2009). Title of chapter. In A. Author & B. Author (Eds.), Title of Book (pp. 12-34).doi: 12.3456/78910

Author, B. B. (1985). Title of chapter. In A. Author & B. Author (Eds.), Title of Book (pp. 12-34).City, State: Publisher. doi: 12.3456/78910

referencing for articles
Referencing for Articles

Author, E. E. (1999). Title of article. Title of Journal, 1, 12-34. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., &

Author, Z. Z. (2004). Title of article. Title of Journal, 1(1), 56-78. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

rules for citing quotations
Rules for Citing Quotations

Quotes must have page number or paragraph number (this is needed for internet or PDF files without page numbers):

  • Brown (2005, p. 1) one page or

(Brown, 2005, p. 1)

  • Brown (2005, pp. 1-2) multiple pages or

(Brown, 2005, pp. 1-2)

rules for citing quotations1
Rules for Citing Quotations

If the internet site or PDF file has no page numbers use the following:

  • Brown (2005, para. 1) or

(Brown, 2005, para. 1-2)

  • Brown (2005, ¶ 1) or

(Brown, 2005, ¶ 1-2)

what if
What if. . .
  • n.d. (n.d.) means no date given and is used whenever one can not find the date a reference was posted.
  • Anonymous (2005) or (Anonymous, 2005) can be used for unkown authors.
what if1
What if. . .
  • If a work has six or more authors or a long list of authors, cite up to six names the first time. After this use, et al.

Green, Brown, Black, Pink, White and Yellow (2005) stated. . .

Green et al. (2005) stated. . .

what if2
What if. . .
  • If one author has two or more publications in the same year, use lower case letters to identify the works.

Brown (2005a) stated. . .

Brown (2005b) stated. . .

Alphabetized according to title of work!!!

what if3
What if. . .
  • Alphabetize last names with articles and propositions (de, la or von) according to the language in which they stem i.e. Goethe and Beethoven would be von Goethe and von Beethoven respectively.
citing personal communication
Citing Personal Communication

Personal communication is:

  • Email
  • Phone conversations
  • Messages on electronic bulletin boards
  • Interviews
  • Nonarchieved materials from discussion groups
citing personal communication1
Citing Personal Communication
  • Personal communication appears only in in-text documentation
  • Is used documented in the same style as books and periodicals.
citing personal communication2
Citing Personal Communication

When citing personal communication, use the following documentation procedures:

  • A. B. Brown (personal communication, May 1, 2003) at the beginning of a sentence.
  • (A. B. Brown, personal communication, May 1, 2003) at the middle or end of a sentence.
personal communication
Personal Communication

It is permissible to replace the word, personal communication with:

  • Interview
  • Phone call
  • Email
  • Correspondence (letter)
citing an internet source cont
Citing an Internet Source, cont.

Internet addresses are given in the References and NOT in the research paper! Do not write the full address! See example below!

  • (2004) at beginning of sentence
  • (, 2004) at end of sentence