How to Reference Using APA. References. APA stands for the American Psychological Association APA style calls its bibliography or works cited section: References. Alphabetize according to author‘s last name, company‘s name or internet title. References, cont.
Nicol, A. A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: Apractical guide for creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Fine, M. A., & Kurdek, L. A. (1993). Reflections on determining authorship
credit and authorship order on faculty-student collaborations. American Psychologist, 48(1), 1141-1147.
When citing a secondary source, in-text citation would appear as the following:
Seidenburg and McClelland’s study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993, pp. 589-608)
Reference entry would look like this:
Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589-608.
VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates [Electronic version]. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123.
VandenBos, Knapp and Doe (2001) or (VandenBox, Knapp, & Doe, 2001).
Merriam-Webster‘s collegiate dictionary (10th.ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
1 Correnthians, 13:1 (Revised Standard Version)
The Holy Quran, 4:50
Mishna Torah, Laws of Prayer, 13:6
New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001). Retrieved from
http://news. ninemsn.com.au/ health/story_13178.asp
In-text citation would appear as “New child vaccine” (2001) or (“New child,” 2001).
Brown, G. T. (2010, April 1). Lufthansa bounces back. Retrieved from
Scorsese, M. (Producer), & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000). You can count on me [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount.
Hall, B. (Writer/Director/Producer). (1991). The Rules of the Game [Television series episode No. 1]. In J. Sander (Producer) I‘ll fly away. New York: ABC Television.
The abbreviation, ed. stands for edition.
APA (2001). Presenting your finds (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: APA Press.
The abbreviation, Ed. or Eds. Stands for
Brown, A., & Black, T. (Eds.) The tradition of colors in weddings. St. Helen, MI: University Press.
The DOI is the abbreviation for digital object identifier. DOI systems can be found online under sites such as CrossRef. The official website is:
The DOI can usually be found as part of the general description of a book or periodical. That is after the information on author, title of book, article title and journal title. Although it was stated that ten digits are used, the DOI could be longer. In the reference section, it is the last piece of information of a reference.
There are several changes in how the information in the reference section of a paper appear. These changes may reduce or add to the amount of information that is needed.
Not all books and periodicals have a DOI assigned. This is especially true for information published before 2000! Therefore, the established rules still apply. Don‘t waste your time looking for a DOI! There may not be one!
Author, A. A. (2009). Title. doi: 12.3456/78910
Author, B. B. (1985). Title. City, State: Publisher. doi: 12.3456/78910
Author, D. D. (1976). Title [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi: 10.1036/007139722
Author, A. A. (2009). Title of chapter. In A. Author & B. Author (Eds.), Title of Book (pp. 12-34).doi: 12.3456/78910
Author, B. B. (1985). Title of chapter. In A. Author & B. Author (Eds.), Title of Book (pp. 12-34).City, State: Publisher. doi: 12.3456/78910
Author, E. E. (1999). Title of article. Title of Journal, 1, 12-34. doi: 10.1037/0278-618.104.22.168
Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., &
Author, Z. Z. (2004). Title of article. Title of Journal, 1(1), 56-78. doi: 10.1037/0278-622.214.171.124
Quotes must have page number or paragraph number (this is needed for internet or PDF files without page numbers):
(Brown, 2005, p. 1)
(Brown, 2005, pp. 1-2)
If the internet site or PDF file has no page numbers use the following:
(Brown, 2005, para. 1-2)
(Brown, 2005, ¶ 1-2)
Green, Brown, Black, Pink, White and Yellow (2005) stated. . .
Green et al. (2005) stated. . .
Brown (2005a) stated. . .
Brown (2005b) stated. . .
Alphabetized according to title of work!!!
Personal communication is:
When citing personal communication, use the following documentation procedures:
It is permissible to replace the word, personal communication with:
Internet addresses are given in the References and NOT in the research paper! Do not write the full address! See example below!