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**SUMMER VACATION HOMEWORK**SUBJECT : MATHEMATIC’S ASSIGNED BY : MR.SHRIDHAR DIVEDI ASSIGNED TO : TANUJ KUNDARIYA ROLL NUMBER : 5141 CLASS & SECTION : 9 ‘A’**TOPIC**MATHEMATICIAN**1.THALES (640bce-546bce)**Thales of Miletus was a pre-socratic Greek philosopher from Miletus in Asia minor and one of the seven sages of Greek. Many most notably ar- Istotle regard him as the first philosopher in the Greek tradition. Accord- Ing to Bertrand Russell “western philosophy begins with Thales”. Thales Attempted to explain natural phenomena without reference To mythology and was tremendously influence in this resp- Ct. He was also the first to define general principal set Forth Hypotheses, and as a result has been dubbed the “FATHER OF MATHEMATIC’S”**2.Archimedes(287bce-212bce)**The Greek genius Archimedes was the first to compute digits in the decimal expansion of He showed 3.140845<< 3.1 42857. Aryabhatta(476-550AD), the great Indian mathema- Tician and Astronomer, found the value of correct to four de- Cimal places (3.1416). Using high speed computers And advance algorithms, has been computed to Over 1.24 trillion decimal places. Archimedes was a Greek mathematician philosopher who wrote important Books on geometry.**3.Rene Descartes(1596-1650)**Rene Descartes, the great French mathematician of seventeenth century, Liked to lie in bed and think. One day, when resting in bed he solved The problem of describing the position of a point in a plane. His method Was a development of the older idea of latitude and longitude. In honor Of Descartes, the system used for describing the position of a point in a Plane is also known as the CARTECIAN SY- STEM. From 1620 to 1628 Descartes travel th- Rough Europe, spending time in Bohemia (1620), Hungry (1621), Germany (1622-23).**4.Euclid(325bce-265bce)**The Greek mathematician of Euclid’s time thought of geometry as an ab- Starct model of the world in which they lived. The notions of point, line, Plane(or surface) and so on were derived from what was seen around them From studies of the space and solids in the space around them, an abstr- Act geometrical notion of a solid object was developed . A solid has shape, size, position, and can be moved from One place to another. Its boundaries are called surfaces. They separate one part of the space from another, and Are said to have no thickness. The boundaries of surface CURVES.**5.SRINIVASA RAMANUJAN (1887-1920)**Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887-1920) introduce the mathematical world. Born in south India, Ramanujan was promising student, winning acad- Emic prizes in high school. But at age of 16 his life took a decisive turn After he obtained a book titled A Synopsis of Elementary Results in a Pure and Applied Mathematics. The book was simply a completion of Thousands of mathematical results, most set down with a Little or no indication of proof. It was in no sense a mathe Matical classic; rather; it was written as an aid to coach- Ing English mathematics students.**6.Aryabhatta(476-550 ad)**AryabhatAryabhatta (476-550 A.D.), one of the world’s greatest mat ematician-astronomer, was born in Patliputra in Magadha, modern Pat na in Bihar. Many are of the view that he was born in the south of India especially Kerala and lived in Magadha at the time of the Gupta rulers. However, there exists no documentation to ascertain his exact birthplace. Whatever this origin, it cannot be argued that he lived in Patliputra where he wrote his famous treatise the Aryabhatta but the more famously the "Aryabhatiya".**7.Leonhard EULER (1707-1783)**Leonhard Euler's father was Paul Euler. Leonhard Euler was pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist. He made important discoveries in his Fields as diverse as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory. He introduce Much of modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for Mathematical analysis, such as notion of a mathematical function. He is Also renowned for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamic, Optics, and astronomy. Euler spent his most of time in St. Petersburg, Russia and in Berlin, Prussia. He is Considered to be the pre-eminent mathematician of the 18 century.**8.PYTHAGORAS (569-475 bc)**Pythagoras is often referred to as the first pure mathematician. He was Born on the island of Samos, Greece in 569 BC. He died in 475 BC In Metapontum, Luciana, Italy. His father, Mnesarchus, was a gem Merchant. His mother was Pythais. Pythagoras has two brothers. He Married to a women named Theano and had a daughter Demo, and son named Telauges, who succeeded Pythagoras As a teacher and possibly taught Empedocles. His wife Theano was also a student of Pythagoras. Pythagoras has Written many books about math's.**9.HERON (472-399 bc)**Heron was a Greek mathematician. He born in 472 BC in Ptolemaic in Egypt. As a student heron spent his most of the time in library at the University of Alexandria. He loved to be in the library, because of the Series of gardens vast collection of books. Heron was strongly influenced By the writing of Ctsibius of Alexandria. He may have been student of Ctsibius. When older he taught in at the University of Alexandria, and taught mathematics, mechanics, and Physical science. He wrote many books and he used it As text for his students, and manuals technicians, and Were written in Greek, Latin and Egyptian.sssss**10.Isaac newton (1642-1727)**Newton was an industrious lad who built marvelous toys. At about age of 22, on leave from university, this genius began revolutionary advances in Mathematics, optics, dynamics, thermodynamics, acoustics and celestial Mathematics. He is famous for his three laws of motion. Isaac Newton Credits the First Law itself to Aristotle. However Newton was also the First person to conclude that the ordinary gravity we observe On Earth is the very same force that keeps the planes in its Orbit. His law of universal gravitation was revolutionary And due to Isaac Newton alone. Newton other interest include Chemistry, theology, astrology, and alchemy.