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Response to Intervention, Problem Solving, and the 3 Tier Model Universal Data Collection and Assessment. Ruth Poage-Gaines, IASPIRE Regional Coordinator 11-16-09 Presentation Materials from Mary Miller- IASPIRE . Acknowledgements .

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Response to Intervention,Problem Solving, and the 3 Tier Model Universal Data Collection and Assessment

Ruth Poage-Gaines, IASPIRE Regional Coordinator


Presentation Materials from Mary Miller- IASPIRE

  • Mark Shinn and the IASPIRE North Region Coordinators (Barb Curl, Christine Martin, Madi Phillips, Ben Ditkowsky, Pam Radford, Janice Miller, Christine Malecki)
  • D300- Carpentersville RtI Team- Mary Miller, Coordinator
expected outcomes
Expected Outcomes

Familiarity with general assessment principles

An understanding of how summative assessment differs from formative assessment

An understanding of mastery measurement vs. general outcome measures

Problem Identification through the referral system vs. universal screening data

Norms vs. Standards based approaches to defining at risk populations

Understanding Curriculum Based Measurement

How to use CBM’s for program accountability


Shift in approach from:

    • Assessment OF Learning
    • to
    • Assessment FOR Learning
general assessments
General Assessments
  • Types of Assessments
    • Screening
      • Screening tests identify at risk students according to a designated cut score
    • Formative
      • Formative assessment is ongoing
    • Summative
      • Summative assessment is often used at the end of major units of instruction and at year’s end
    • Diagnostic
      • Diagnostic assessments can be used for screening, or for formative of summative assessment
general assessment principles
General Assessment Principles
  • All assessment should be “planful”
    • Tests should be given to answer a specific question about a child’s performance
    • Use Summative and Formative Evaluation
      • Shift from what has been learned to what is being learned
      • Move the focus away from unalterable variables to alterable variables that educators can do something about
diagnostic tests
Diagnostic Tests
  • Give information on specific skills that need to be taught
  • Take longer to administer and score
  • Best when tied to the curriculum and/or target important skills
  • Standardized diagnostic tests are often used for determining eligibility for programming
general assessment principles10
General Assessment Principles
  • Mastery Measurement vs. General Outcome Measurement
    • Mastery measurement (i.e. Summative) is a measure of a child’s mastery of a concept or curriculum presented
    • General Outcome Measures (i.e. CBM) are not tied to a specific curriculum and measure progress on long term goals

Tier 3Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students
  • Assessment - based
  • High intensity
  • Of longer duration



  • Tier 3Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual Students
  • Assessment - based
  • Intense, durable procedures





  • Tier 2Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Tier 2Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Tier 1Core Instructional Interventions
  • All students
  • Preventive, proactive
  • Tier 1Core Instructional Interventions
  • All settings, All students
  • Preventive, proactive



3-Tier Model


successful 3 tier models have
Successful 3 Tier Models Have….
  • A continuum of services and/or programs across the tiers that are scientifically based
  • Methods of identifying students at risk for academic failure and for evaluating/monitoring progress across the tiers, ideally those that are considered scientifically based
  • Efficient, COMMON methods of communicating student performance for all disciplines (i.e. progress monitoring)
if i had 1 hour to save the world i would use 50 minutes to define the problem albert einstein
“If I had 1 hour to save the world, I would use 50 minutes to define the problem.”Albert Einstein
a problem defined
A Problem Defined…
  • At Tier 3:
    • The difference between an individual student’s performance and a criterion of success in a curriculum area.
  • At Tier 2:
    • The difference between at-risk students’ performance and a criterion of success in a curriculum area.
  • At Tier 1:
    • The difference between how many students are proficient on their accountability assessments and 100%. The desired state is for all students to be proficient.

(NASDSE, 2006)

universal screening
Universal Screening
  • The basic question in a screening measure is whether or not the student should be judged as “at risk”
  • For a screening measure to be useful, it should satisfy three criteria:
    • Accurately identify students who require further assessment
    • Be practical
    • Efficient use of resources
universal screening practices
Universal Screening Practices:
  • Universal Screening and Benchmarking Data is collected at the beginning of a school year.
  • School leadership team makes a decision about whether to use norms- or standards-based discrepancy for identifying problems.
  • Teams use the Data to make Decisions about potential problems.
  • Programs and Resources are Allocated to each of the 3-Tiers based on the Data.
use benchmark for universal screening
Use Benchmark for Universal Screening

2 Approaches to Identifying Students:

1. Norm-Based Approaches to Identify the Most Needy Students

2. Standards-Based Approaches to Identify Intensity of Programs and Progress Monitoring Frequency

methods of measuring performance discrepancies
Methods of Measuring Performance Discrepancies
  • Norm-Based Approaches
    • Percentile Rank Cut Scores
    • Discrepancy Ratios (Tiers 2 and 3)
  • Standards-Based Approaches
    • Illinois AIMSweb Standards (Cut Scores for ISAT and Minnesota State Test)
    • Oregon DIBELS Standards (Cut Scores for Oregon State Test)
discrepancy ratio
Discrepancy Ratio

Quantify how many times the student’s current level of performance varies from that of his/her peers.

Compute By:

Peer Median

Target Student Median



= Discrepancy of 3x

Will Need Problem Solving

norm based criteria 2nd grade discrepancy tier 1
Norm-Based Criteria2nd Grade Discrepancy Tier 1

At Tier 1, 62% of 2nd grade students have met the expected criteria (55 WRC) compared to 80% nationally.

standard based approaches
Standard-Based Approaches
  • Illinois AIMSweb Standards Tied to ISAT and Minnesota State
  • Oregon DIBELS Standards
general outcome measures from other fields
General Outcome Measures from Other Fields

Medicine measures height,

weight, temperature, and/or blood


Federal Reserve Board measures

the Consumer Price Index

Wall Street measures the Dow-

Jones Industrial Average

McDonald’s measures how many

hamburgers they sell

understanding general outcome measures gom from mark shinn ph d michelle shinn ph d
Understanding General Outcome Measures (GOM)from Mark Shinn, Ph.D. & Michelle Shinn, Ph.D.
  • Measures important outcomes
    • General skill rather than individual sub skills
    • Contains a large pool of items
    • Measurable and observable
  • Sensitive to growth over relatively short periods of time
  • Valid and reliable measure
what is curriculum based measurement
What is Curriculum Based Measurement?
  • Education has its own set of indicators of general basic skill success (General Outcome Measures). Curriculum-Based Measurement allows us to make important statements about our students’ reading, spelling, written expression, and mathematics computation skills.
  • Web-based data management system
  • Organizes data
  • “Informs” the teaching and learning process by providing continuous student performance data
  • Reports improvements to students, parents, teachers, and administrators
  • Assessment data and interventions are closely linked
aimsweb cbm assessments
Oral Reading Fluency (R-CBM), a standardized 1 minute sample of oral reading where the number of words read correctly is counted. (Grades 1-8)

Reading (Maze-CBM), a multiple-choice cloze task that students complete while reading silently. The first sentence of a 150-400 word passage is left intact. Thereafter, every 7th word is replaced with three words inside parenthesis. (Grades 1-8)

Phonics and Phonological Awareness (Early Literacy Measures), a standardized sample of fluency in initial sound identification, letter naming, and phonemic segmentation. (Grades K-1)

Math Computation (M-CBM), a standardized 2-4 minute completion of computational problems where the number of correct digits is counted. (Grades 1-8)

**May use at High School Level to identify at-risk and Progress Monitoring

AIMSweb CBM Assessments
aimsweb cbm assessments31
AIMSweb CBM Assessments

Early Numeracy (EN-CBM), a standardized sample of skills in oral counting, identifying missing numbers, number identification and quantity discrimination. (Grades K-1)

Spelling (S-CBM), a standardized 2 minute spelling word dictation where the number of words spelled correctly or the number of correct letter sequences is counted. (Grades 1-8)

Written Expression (WE-CBM), a standardized 2-4 minutes of writing after being provided a story starter where the total number of words written or the number of correct word sequences is counted. (Grades 1-8)

MIDE Spanish Early Literacy – a standardized sample of letter naming fluency, letter sound fluency, syllable segmentation, syllable reading fluency, syllable and word spelling, and oral reading fluency. These measures require students to produce information in one minute with the exception of syllable and word spelling in which prompts are given every 20 seconds for two minutes.

what does r cbm measure
What Does R-CBM Measure?

All of these skills….

General Reading Ability





Running Record

ITBS, etc.

IRI, Gates, etc.

Evaluating Core Reading Programs

Assessing Reading

Phonemic Awareness






• Motivation &


• Active Reading


• Monitoring Strategies

• Fix-Up Strategies

•Life Experience

• Content Knowledge

• Activation of Prior


• Knowledge about


• Oral Language Skills

• Knowledge of Language


• Vocabulary

• Cultural Influences



We Refer to It as

General Reading Skills





• Prosody

• Automaticity/Rate

• Accuracy

• Decoding

• Phonemic Awareness

*modified slightly from presentations by Joe Torgeson, Ph.D. Co-Director, Florida Center for Reading Research;


Educational Need

Student Scores- Correct Words per Minute

Above 90%ile



Box Plot draws a box around the range of student scores: 169-43




Below 10%ile

schools use cbm in universal screening instead of referral driven practices
Schools Use CBM in Universal Screening Instead of Referral Driven Practices

< 25th

Tier 2 Candidates


Individual Problem Solving and/or

Tier 3 Candidates

local assessments correlated with accountability assessments
Local Assessments Correlated with Accountability Assessments

Collect a large sample of scores from local assessments (e.g., R-CBM) and correlate with passing scores on accountability tests (e.g., ISAT) over time.

Need AIMSweb or statistician to calculate correlations

Correlations between test scores result in determining what minimum score is needed on local assessment to pass the state accountability measures

advantages of using cbm for accountability assessments
Advantages of Using CBM for Accountability Assessments

Measures are simple and easy to administer

Measures are reliable and valid

Training is quick

Entire student body can be measured efficiently and frequently

Routine testing allows schools to track progress during school year

let s review
Let’s Review

General Assessment Principles

Summative vs. Formative assessment

Mastery Measurement vs. General Outcome Measures

Problem Identification through the referral system vs. universal screening data

Norms vs. Standards based approaches

Understanding Curriculum Based Measurement

How to read a box plot

CBMs for program accountability

thank you
Thank you…
  • Questions
  • Comments
  • For further

information contact:

Have a Great Thanksgiving