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Pressure Ulcer Prevention. Lessons Learned from Skin Fair Jeri Lundgren, RN, CWS, CWCN Pathway Healthcare Services Jody Rothe, RN, WCC MetaStar, Inc. December 2, 2009. Skin Care . Objectives for our learning session: The importance of hydrating skin How to handle fragile skin

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pressure ulcer prevention

Pressure Ulcer Prevention

Lessons Learned from Skin Fair

Jeri Lundgren, RN, CWS, CWCN

Pathway Healthcare Services

Jody Rothe, RN, WCC

MetaStar, Inc.

December 2, 2009

skin care
Skin Care
  • Objectives for our learning session:
    • The importance of hydrating skin
    • How to handle fragile skin
    • Moisture – friend or foe
    • How to turn the frail elderly patient
    • What causes pressure and the stage definitions
    • Importance of nutrition
    • Overall care of the skin
the daily post the barren dessert
The Daily Post – The Barren Dessert
  • Protect Dry Skin which can lead to friction injuries and skin tears
  • Use moisturizers frequently and as often as necessary
  • Always be on the look-out for skin changes
the daily post fragile handle with care
The Daily Post – Fragile Handle With Care
  • Be cautious when changing incontinent products, bandages, or even their clothes
  • Your elder’s skin is very fragile and can tear easily
the daily post the barrier reef
The Daily Post – The Barrier Reef
  • Use a moisture barrier to help protect the skin from stool and urine
  • Barrier creams and ointments only work if they are applied, and applied correctly
  • These creams can be the first line of defense for your elder to stop a pressure ulcer before it develops
the daily post you re tearing me apart
The Daily Post – You’re Tearing Me Apart
  • Simple movements, such as turning or lifting, can create friction and shearing, which can injure the skin
  • To move and reposition residents, use lifting devices and draw sheets
  • Avoid dragging.
the daily post under pressure
The Daily Post – Under Pressure
  • Reposition bedbound residents every two (2) hours
  • Reposition chairbound residents every one (1) hour
  • Use devices, such as pillows and cushions, to keep bony prominences from direct contact
the daily post taster s choice and treasure hunt
The Daily Post – Taster’s Choice and Treasure Hunt
  • Poor nutrition is a risk factor in developing a pressure ulcer
  • Assist residents to eat as necessary
  • Notify the nurse if there is a decline or change in a resident’s eating habits
  • Choose supplements that are tasty
  • Consider choice in dining as a strategy to increase weight
the daily post the princess and the pea
The Daily Post – The Princess and the Pea
  • Use support surfaces on beds and chairs to reduce pressure
  • Avoid donuts
  • Use pillows or devices to raise heels off the bed
the daily post dorothy s shoe
The Daily Post – Dorothy’s Shoe
  • Always be on the lookout for anything that could create pressure on the skin, including the feet
the daily post squeezing me too tight
The Daily Post – Squeezing Me Too Tight
  • Stage IV pressure sores can take the longest to heal
  • In some residents Stage IV ulcers can develop in a matter of hours (i.e., if left on the wrong surface too long)
kick up your heels
Kick Up Your Heels
  • Heels are especially vulnerable to pressure even on a good support surface
  • Heel elevation will help prevent pressure ulcers to the heels
  • Tip: On daily rounds monitor to ensure heels are off on the beds and equipment is being used appropriately
stages of pressure ulcers terrors of the deep
Stages of Pressure Ulcers – Terrors of the Deep
    • Purple or maroon localized area of discolored intact skin or blood-filled blister
    • Due to damage of underlying soft tissue from pressure and/or shear
    • The area may be preceded by tissue that is painful, firm, mushy, boggy, warmer or cooler as compared to adjacent tissue
stage 1
Stage 1
  • Intact skin with non-blanchable redness of a localized area usually over a bony prominence
  • Darkly pigmented skin may not have visible blanching; its color may differ from the surrounding area
stage 2
Stage 2
  • Partial thickness loss of dermis presenting as a shallow open ulcer with a red pink wound bed, without slough
  • May also present as an intact or open/ruptured serum-filled blister
stage 3
Stage 3
  • Full thickness tissue loss
  • Subcutaneous fat may be visible but bone, tendon or muscle are not exposed
  • Slough may be present but does not obscure the depth of tissue loss
  • May include undermining and tunneling
stage 4
Stage 4
  • Full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon or muscle
  • Slough or eschar may be present on some parts of the wound bed
  • Often include undermining and tunneling
  • Full thickness tissue loss in which the base of the ulcer is covered by slough (yellow, tan, gray, green or brown) and/or eschar (tan, brown or black) in the wound bed
braden scale puzzle sensory perception
Braden Scale Puzzle – Sensory Perception
  • Sensory Perception:
    • The person’s ability to perceive and respond MEANINGFULLY to pressure related pain & discomfort
  • Interventions
    • Remember the shoe exercise? Check for anything that could be creating pressure on the skin
    • For the resident with limited ability to perceive pressure, put on a turning schedule to ensure pressure relieved at regular intervals
braden puzzle moisture
Braden Puzzle – Moisture
  • Moisture:
    • The amount of moisture the skin is exposed to
  • Interventions:
    • Use moisture barrier in particularly wet areas (peri-area, buttocks, etc.)
    • Change clothing, incontinence products, and linen as often as you need to
braden scale puzzle activity
Braden Scale Puzzle – Activity
  • Activity:
    • Getting up and around
  • Interventions:
    • Change position at least every 2 hours
    • ROM
    • Ambulate
    • Teach resident to change his/her own position
braden scale puzzle mobility
Braden Scale Puzzle – Mobility
  • Mobility:
    • Changing position and controlling body position
  • Interventions:
    • Float the heels
    • Reposition at least every 2 hours for bed-bound residents; hourly for chair bound
    • Use pillows for support
braden scale puzzle nutrition
Braden Scale Puzzle – Nutrition
  • Nutrition:
    • USUAL food intake
  • Interventions:
    • Help to eat
    • Get foods they like (within their diet)
    • Offer fluids frequently (as diet allows)
    • Provide supplements as ordered
braden scale puzzle friction and shear
Braden Scale Puzzle – Friction and Shear
  • Friction & Shear:
    • Ability to move without rubbing or dragging
  • Interventions:
    • Use lift sheet
    • Soft socks on feet
    • Long sleeves or elbow protectors
    • Keep the head of the bed at the lowest degree of elevation consistent with medical condition and other restrictions
    • Limit the amount of time the head of the bed is elevated
pressure ulcer prevention28
Pressure Ulcer Prevention
  • You can make a difference
  • Implement preventative interventions
  • Report changes in skin
  • Thank you
contact information

Contact Information:

Jody Rothe, RN, WCC

Quality Consultant

MetaStar, Inc.

2909 Landmark Place

Madison, WI 53713

(608) 274-1940 or (800) 362-2320, ext. 8271

This material was prepared by MetaStar, the Medicare Quality Improvement Organization for Wisconsin, under contract with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The contents presented do not necessarily reflect CMS policy.  9SOW-WI-PS-09-223.