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Materials Used In Batteries. Dwight Younge. Introduction. Battery (two categories) Primary (one-time) Secondary (rechargeable) The need for batteries: Technological reliance Quality of life Focus: Canada Canada (2004) Est. 450 million batteries sold Est. 348 million discarded.

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Presentation Transcript
introduction
Introduction
  • Battery (two categories)
    • Primary (one-time)
    • Secondary (rechargeable)
  • The need for batteries:
    • Technological reliance
    • Quality of life
  • Focus:
    • Canada
  • Canada (2004)
    • Est. 450 million batteries sold
    • Est. 348 million discarded
battery structure
Battery structure
  • Insulation tube (usually polymers)
  • Metal end caps
  • Common chemicals used
    • Lead-acid
    • Lithium
    • Nickel-Cadmium
    • Silver oxide
    • Mercury
    • Copper
    • Zinc
    • Manganese
    • Lithium
    • Potassium
zinc carbon battery 1 5v
Zinc-carbon battery (1.5V)

Photo by The Battery Association of Japan

battery disposal
Battery disposal
  • Batteries have definite lifetimes
  • What happens to dead batteries?
    • Trash
      • 60% of households in Canada
      • Improperly disposed batteries end up in landfills or incinerators
    • Dropped off at battery depot
      • Over half of the households in PEI do so
    • Any hazards associated with improper battery disposal?
environmental hazards
Environmental Hazards
  • Normal alkaline batteries in trash
    • Not too harmful but not recommended
  • Safety risk due to large volume disposal
    • Batteries can react and overheat
  • Chemical leakage (heavy metal toxic batteries):
    • Lead-acid
    • Lithium
    • Nickel-Cadmium
    • Silver oxide
    • Mercury
  • Plant, animal, and ocean life
  • Chemicals release toxins when batteries are combusted
    • Incineration
health issues
Health Issues
  • Human interaction with chemicals from improperly disposed batteries
    • E.g. Lead (inhalation)
    • E.g. Mercury (skin absorption)
  • Some health problems
    • Abdominal pain
    • Liver and kidney damage
    • Skin irritation
    • Asthma
    • Decreased IQ in children (****)
    • Cancer
proper disposal methods
Proper disposal methods
  • Do not dispose of dead batteries in the trash
  • Designate separate waste bins for batteries
  • Local battery disposal station
  • Community-run disposal program
  • Proper disposal
    • Most common in PEI
    • Controlled disposal methods outweigh disposal through regular waste stream
how can we reduce battery waste
How can we reduce battery waste?
  • Recycling
  • Consider battery alternatives
    • Rechargeable batteries
    • Renewable sources (eg. Solar)
  • Modify existing batteries
    • Less lead, cadmium, mercury
    • Research
earth
Earth

Photo by NASA

references
References
  • http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/16-002-x/2008001/10539-eng.htm (Statistics Canada)
  • http://www.baj.or.jp/e/knowledge/structure.html (Battery Association of Japan)
  • http://www.ppgintl.com/products/battery-sleeve-insulation-1 (Precision Products Group, Inc.)
  • http://www.frost.com/prod/servlet/market-insight-top.pag?docid=20759887 (Frost & Sullivan)