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Most Commonly Used Materials. The following 25 materials are the most commonly used materials in the design of mechanical products; in themselves they represent the broad range of other materials. Steel and Cast Iron. 1020 (plain carbon steel, hot-rolled or cold-drawn)

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most commonly used materials
Most Commonly Used Materials

The following 25 materials are the most commonly used materials in the design of mechanical products; in themselves they represent the broad range of other materials.

Steel and Cast Iron

  • 1020 (plain carbon steel, hot-rolled or cold-drawn)
  • 1040 (plain carbon steel, hot-rolled or cold-drawn)
  • 4140 (heat-treated alloy steel, chromium-molybdenum)
  • 4340 (heat-treated alloy steel, nickel-chromium-molybdenum)
  • S30400 (stainless steel)
  • S316 (stainless steel)
  • O1 (tool steel)
  • ASTM20-60 (gray cast iron)

Product Design and Manufacturing, SJSU

most commonly used materials1

Aluminum and Copper Alloys

  • 2024 (aluminum, O, T3, T4 or T6)
  • 3003 (aluminum, H12 or H16)
  • 6061 (aluminum, T6)
  • 7075 (aluminum, T6)
  • C268 (copper)

Other metals

  • Titanium 6-4
  • AZ63A (magnesium)
Most Commonly Used Materials

Product Design and Manufacturing, SJSU

most commonly used materials2

Ceramics

  • Alumina
  • Graphite

Composite materials

  • Douglas fir
  • Fiberglass
  • Graphite/epoxy
Most Commonly Used Materials

Plastics

  • ABS
  • Polycarbonate
  • Nylon 6/6
  • Polypropylene
  • Polystyrene

Product Design and Manufacturing, SJSU

application of most commonly used materials
Application of Most Commonly Used Materials

Component

Material

Product Design and Manufacturing, SJSU

application of most commonly used materials1
Application of Most Commonly Used Materials

Component

Material

Product Design and Manufacturing, SJSU

application of most commonly used materials2

Material

Component

Application of Most Commonly Used Materials

Product Design and Manufacturing, SJSU

properties of most commonly used materials
Properties of Most Commonly Used Materials

Ultimate Strength in tension

Product Design and Manufacturing, SJSU

properties of most commonly used materials1
Properties of Most Commonly used Materials

Yield strength

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properties of most commonly used materials2
Properties of Most Commonly used Materials

Fatigue endurance limit (strength under cyclic loading)

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properties of most commonly used materials3
Properties of Most Commonly used Materials

Density

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cost of most commonly used materials
Cost of Most Commonly used Materials

Product Design and Manufacturing, SJSU

example materials for table legs
Example – Materials for table legs

Luigi Tavolino, furniture designer, conceives of a lightweight table of daring simplicity: a flat sheet of toughened glass supported on slender, unbraced, cylindrical legs. The legs must be solid and as light as possible (to make the table easier to move). They must support the table top and whatever is placed upon it without buckling.What materials could one recommend.

Product Design and Manufacturing, SJSU

example materials for table legs1

Objective function

Example – Materials for table legs

The Model

The leg is a slender column of density ρ and modulus E. The load P and its length l are determined by design (fixed). The radius r of the leg is a variable. We wish to minimize the mass m of the leg.

Product Design and Manufacturing, SJSU

example materials for table legs2

=

Material properties

The weight is minimized by selecting the subset of materials with the greatest value of the material index.

Example – Materials for table legs

The constraint is that the legs must support a design load without buckling.

Euler’s buckling equation

where I = πr4/4

Solving for the free variable , r, and substituting it into the equation for m gives,

Product Design and Manufacturing, SJSU

example materials for table legs3

The thinnest leg is that made of the material with the largest value of the material index.

Two material indices,

To minimize the weight, both have to be maximize.

Example – Materials for table legs

Solving the Euler’s formula for r, gives an equation for the thinnest leg which will not buckle:

Material properties

Product Design and Manufacturing, SJSU

procedure for deriving material indices
Procedure for deriving material indices

Product Design and Manufacturing, SJSU

modulus of elasticity e vs density charts
Modulus of Elasticity (E) vs. Density (ρ) Charts

Constant guidelines

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modulus of elasticity e vs density charts1
Modulus of Elasticity (E) vs. Density (ρ) Charts

Product Design and Manufacturing, SJSU

modulus of elasticity e vs density charts2
Modulus of Elasticity (E) vs. Density (ρ) Charts

Product Design and Manufacturing, SJSU

summary of materials for table legs
Summary of materials for table legs

Product Design and Manufacturing, SJSU