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Coaching Theory. Sports Theory Fall. Three major objectives to coaching. 1. To have a winning team 2. To help young people have fun 3. To help young people develop: physically (sport skills, conditioning) psychologically (controlling emotions, self-worth)

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coaching theory

Coaching Theory

Sports Theory Fall

three major objectives to coaching
Three major objectives to coaching
  • 1. To have a winning team
  • 2. To help young people have fun
  • 3. To help young people develop:
  • physically (sport skills, conditioning)
  • psychologically (controlling emotions, self-worth)
  • Socially (cooperation, appropriate behavior in sport settings)
what is your coaching style
What is your coaching style?
  • Command…Submissive…Cooperative
  • Command (Dictator): coach makes all the decisions, athlete’s job is to listen, absorb, and comply
  • Submissive (Babysitter): roll the ball out coach, makes few decisions, lazy with little instruction
  • Cooperative: Shares the decision with athletes (to a point)
here is an useful analogy
Here is an useful analogy
  • Coaching is like a wet bar of soap, too much pressure and it will shoot out of your hand and fall to the ground, too little pressure and it will fall out of your hands onto the floor, but with just the right pressure, it will stay in your hands and not fall.
three keys to successful coaching
Three keys to successful coaching
  • 1. Knowledge of the sport: knowing the rules, tactics, and sports skills needed to properly instruct the participants
  • 2. Motivation: A coach has to be able to properly motivate the athletes, and be motivated enough to put the time in to be prepared to coach
  • 3. Empathy: Having the ability to listen to the athletes, understand their feelings and thoughts on things, and respond positively
eight communication skills that are essential
Eight communication skills that are essential
  • 1. Pretentious Pete- Does not admit to being wrong, demands respect, but never gets it, the athletes tune him/her out
  • 2. Nelly Negative- Always negative, frequently criticizing her athletes
  • 3. Jonas the Judge- always evaluating his/her athletes, when athletes make mistakes, blame is placed rather than positive feedback
eight communication skills that are essential7
Eight communication skills that are essential
  • 4. Flabby Fickle- Wishy-washy, tells you one thing, then does another, treats players differently for the same thing (i.e. fighting)
  • 5. Gabby Glades- Constantly giving directions during practice and games, does not listen to any of the players
eight communication skills that are essential8
Eight communication skills that are essential
  • 6. Stewart Stoneface- Never shows emotion, does not smile, wink, or show any emotion, which leaves the players wondering what he is thinking
  • 7. Captain Gobbledygook- Constantly talking above the heads of the players, or in difficult contexts
  • 8. Jermaine Jellybean- Frequently gives rewards, but he usually rewards the wrong behavior, or comes down very hard on minor problems
why do coaches use the negative approach to coaching
Why do coaches use the negative approach to coaching
  • 1. Bad Habit: They are used to telling their athletes what they do wrong, rather than what they do right
  • 2. Unrealistic expectations: Coaches may forget that 14 year olds are not the same as 28 year olds, and that even players of the same age have different skill levels
  • 3. Short-term success: can work initially, but usually interferes with long term goals and success
using rewards what should you reward
Using Rewards- what should you reward?
  • Reward the performance, not the outcome
  • Reward for the effort rather than the success
  • Reward little things on the way toward a larger goal
  • Reward the learning of emotional and social skills, as well as sport skills
how often should you reward
How often should you reward?
  • Reward frequently when youngsters are first learning new skills
  • Once skills are well learned, you only need to reinforce them occasionally
when should you reward
When should you reward?
  • As soon as possible after the correct behaviors
  • Reward athletes only when they have earned it
what type of rewards should you use
What type of rewards should you use?
  • Tangibles: trophies, ribbons, certificates, decals, money and T shirts
  • People rewards: praise, smiles, pat on the back, publicity
  • Activity rewards: playing a game rather than doing drills, taking a trip to play another team, getting to take a rest
dealing with misbehavior
Dealing with misbehavior
  • Extinction: ignoring the behavior. Sometimes the attention you pay towards the misbehavior is what the player wanted in the first place, behaviors like clowning, grandstanding, and other mischievous behaviors
dealing with misbehavior15
Dealing with misbehavior
  • Punishment: use it in a corrective way to help athletes improve now
  • Punish in an impersonal way
  • Once the punishment has been agreed upon by the players, give it to them if they break the rule
  • Usually give one warning before delivering a punishment
dealing with misbehavior16
Dealing with misbehavior
  • Be consistent
  • If you cannot think of an appropriate punishment at the time of the misbehavior, tell the player you will get back to them with the consequence
  • Make sure that what you perceive as a punishment is not perceived by the athlete as a reward
dealing with misbehavior17
Dealing with misbehavior
  • Do not punish athletes while they are playing
  • Never use physical activity to punish
  • Punish sparingly
reasons athletes learn to fear failure
Reasons athletes learn to fear failure
  • When the emphasis is on performance, not learning
  • Unrealistic goals: examples
  • Extrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation: what is the difference, and can one become a problem?
three stages of learning
Three stages of learning
  • 1. Mental: beginning stage that required a great deal of mental activity to put the steps of the skill into the proper order
  • 2. Practice: This stage emphasizes practicing the skill over and over again. You will spend more time in this stage, but your mental activity will be less
  • 3. Automatic: You free up even more mental capacity, which you can use to focus on achieving superior performance
four steps for teaching sport skills
Four steps for teaching sport skills
  • 1. Introduce the skill: make sure the team can see and hear you, speak clearly and in plain language, and try to keep it under 3 minutes
  • 2. Demonstrate and briefly explain the skill
  • What if you cannot demonstrate it properly?
  • The demonstration should be performed from several angles, and several times.
  • If the skill is complex, demonstrate the major parts separately
four steps for teaching sport skills21
Four steps for teaching sport skills
  • 3. Practice the skill: whole versus part practice, what is the difference?
  • Part is best for complex skill acquisition, whole is better for simpler skills
  • Practice should be short, but frequent when teaching new skills
  • Practice should also occur in game-type environments, why?
four steps for teaching sport skills22
Four steps for teaching sport skills
  • 4. Correct errors: provide feedback that the athlete can use to try and fix the errors in the skill being performed
take this quiz on feedback
Take this quiz on feedback
  • 1. Save feedback until the end of practice so that you do not disrupt practice
  • 2. More feedback is better than less feedback
  • 3. When an athlete is making several mistakes, it is best to try and correct one at a time
  • 4. You and your assistant coaches should be the only ones providing feedback
5. You do not need to tell the athlete what was done incorrectly, just tell the athlete how to do the skill right
  • 6. Give simple and precise feedback about how performance can be improved
  • 7. Provide frequent positive feedback (Nice job!)
  • 8. Use sight and sounds in providing feedback
the ten principles of training athletes
The ten principles of training athletes
  • 1. Readiness: Speed, strength, stamina, etc are largely based on maturation with regard to prepubescent, and pubescent boys and girls. Neuromuscular skills can be honed regardless of age
  • 2. Individual response: Athletes will respond to the same training in different ways (i.e. heredity, nutrition, rest and sleep, illness, level of fitness, etc)
the ten principles of training athletes26
The ten principles of training athletes
  • 3. Adaptation: the body takes a while to adapt to training (what does that mean for your athletes)
  • 4. Overload: Pushing the body harder than it is normally pushed
  • 5. Progression: Slowly increasing the demands that you place on the body
the ten principles of training athletes27
The ten principles of training athletes
  • 6. Specificity: Train the muscles that you use the most related to the skills you use during the sport
  • 7. Variation: vary workouts from hard to easy, use different types of drills/activities, cross training, etc
  • 8. Warm-up and cool down: A warm-up does what? A cool down does what? How are they performed?
the ten principles of training athletes28
The ten principles of training athletes
  • 9. Long-term training: It typically takes years for athletes to perform at very high levels, do not expect great things in a short amount of time
  • 10. Reversibility: Fitness can disappear quickly if not maintained, a off-season training program can help the athletes come into the season better prepared
topics for team rules
Topics for team rules
  • Player’s language
  • Attendance at practice and games (what will your policy be)
  • Behavior at practices and games
  • Interactions with officials
  • Discipline for misbehavior
  • Behavior when traveling
  • Locker room behavior
topics for team rules30
Topics for team rules
  • Dress when practicing, competing and traveling
  • Protecting valuables
  • Drug and alcohol use
  • Curfews
  • Criteria for awards
  • Trouble with the law
managing relationships
Managing relationships
  • Assistant coaches
  • Use their strengths
  • Make their responsibilities clear
  • Help your assistants prepare for their duty
  • Let your assistants be involved in the decision making
  • Provide formal and informal evaluations
managing relationships32
Managing relationships
  • Administrators
  • Understand what is expected of you
  • Stay organized (don’t lose receipts or important documents)
  • Keep your administrator informed of your progress, and invite them to your games
  • Give the administrator credit for their contribution(s) to the team
managing relationships33
Managing relationships
  • Officials
  • At home, greet the officials and show them where they can get dressed and ready
  • Treat them like you want to be treated
  • Avoid constantly harassing officials
  • If you have a question about a rule interpretation, address it at the appropriate time, and in a nice way
managing relationships34
Managing relationships
  • Officials
  • Avoid intimidation tactics
  • Help the officials in enforcing the rules that keep the players safe
  • Thank the officials after the contest
  • If you feel they did a very poor job, do not use them again, or write a letter to their boss
managing relationships35
Managing relationships
  • Parents
  • They are ultimately responsible for their children, so if they insist their child does or does not do something (not a request like, put him at quarterback [even though he does not have thumbs]) you should grant their wish
  • Keep them informed of practices and games
managing relationships36
Managing relationships
  • Parents
  • Remind them of their responsibilities regarding equipment, travel, pickup, fees, and behavior
  • Inform parents immediately if a serious problem arises
risk management
Risk Management
  • Negligence: failing to fulfill your legal duties
  • Contributory negligence: Athlete and the coach/supervisor are both partially responsible
  • Comparative negligence: A new way to assess fault, with each party given a % of how much they were at fault
to avoid legal troubles follow these steps
To avoid legal troubles, follow these steps
  • 1. Properly plan the activity (developmentally appropriate, what does that mean?)
  • 2. Provide proper instruction (spear tackling)
  • 3. Provide a safe physical environment (examples)
  • 4. Provide adequate and proper equipment (examples)
  • 5. Match your athletes (examples)
to avoid legal troubles follow these steps39
To avoid legal troubles, follow these steps
  • 6. Evaluate athletes for injury
  • 7. Supervise the activity closely
  • 8. Warn of inherent risks (examples)
  • 9. Provide appropriate emergency assistance (example)