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Chapter 8. Business Across the Enterprise. Getting All the Geese Lined Up: Managing at the Enterprise Business Level.

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chapter 8

Chapter 8

Business Across the Enterprise

getting all the geese lined up managing at the enterprise business level
Getting All the Geese Lined Up: Managing at the Enterprise Business Level

Customer Relationship Management, Enterprise Resource Planning, and Supply Chain Management all share the same Goal: to get the organization to line up and head in the same direction (like geese).

ii what is crm
II. What Is CRM?

Providing the organization with a single complete view of every customer, and providing the customer with a single complete view of the organization and its extended channels

CRM helps identify and reward the best customers

ii crm features
II. CRM Features

Sales – providing software tools and data sources to manage sales activities, and optimize cross-selling and up-selling

Cross-selling – selling related products to current customers

Up-selling – selling better products than the one currently purchased

Marketing and Fulfillment – automate direct marketing, scheduling, and tracking, and assist in scheduling responses and requests, while capturing relevant information for the marketing database

ii crm features5
II. CRM Features

Customer Service and Support – provide customer service software tools, and real-time access to the customer database

Call Center Software – routes calls to customer support agents

Help Desk Software – provides assistance for customer service agents having problems with a product/service

Contact and Account Management – capture and track relevant data about past and planned contacts

ii crm features6
II. CRM Features

Retention and Loyalty Programs – enhancing and optimizing customer retention and loyalty is a major business strategy because:

It costs 6 times more to sell a new customer than an existing one

Dissatisfied customers will tell 8–10 people about bad experiences

A firm can boost sales 85% by increasing customer retention 5%

Odds of selling a new customer – 15%; Odds of selling a current customer – 50%

If a firm resolves a service problem quickly, 70% of complaining customers will do business with the firm again

iii the three phases of crm
III. The Three Phases of CRM

Acquire – CRM helps a new customer perceive value of a superior product/service

Enhance – CRM supports superior customer service, and cross-selling/up-selling

Retain – CRM helps proactively identify and reward the most loyal and profitable customers

v crm failures
V. CRM Failures

Although over 70% of firms plan to implement CRM, over 50% of CRM projects fail to produce promised results due to:

Lack of senior management sponsorship

Improper change management

Projects take on too much too fast

Poor integration between CRM and core business systems

Lack of end-user incentives leading to low user adoption rates

vi trends in crm
VI. Trends in CRM

Firms must create tighter linkages with customers while enhancing the customer experience

Operational CRM – supports/synchronizes customer interactions

Analytical CRM – extracts customer information and predicts customer behavior

Collaborative CRM – enables collaboration with customers, suppliers, and business partners

Portal-Based CRM – enables access to customer information and CRM tools


ERP is a multifunctional enterprisewide backbone that integrates/automates business processes and information systems

What is ERP?

  • A cross-functional software suite supporting basic internal business processes of a firm
iii benefits and challenges of erp
III. Benefits and Challenges of ERP

Major Business Value from ERP

Quality and Efficiency – significant improvements in quality and efficiency of customer service, production, and distribution

Decreased Costs – significant reductions in transaction costs, hardware and software, and IT support staff

Decision Support – provides cross-functional information that enables better decision making across the enterprise

Enterprise Agility – breaks down departmental/functional walls and enables more flexible, adaptive organizational structures

iii benefits and challenges of erp12
III. Benefits and Challenges of ERP

Costs of ERP – if you do not do ERP properly you can kill the firm

Causes of ERP Failures

#1 cause – underestimating the complexity of planning, development, and training necessary for success

Failure to involve affected employees

Trying to do too much too fast

Overreliance on claims of software vendors/consulting firms

iv trends in erp
IV. Trends in ERP

Improvements in Integration and Flexibility – ERP modules have become more flexible and easier to install

Extensions to Business Applications – access to intranets/extranets

Broader Reach to New Users – use of the Internet, intranets and extranets provides new links to customers, suppliers, and partners

Adoption of Internet Technologies –enables all the above

i what is scm
I. What is SCM?

A cross-functional interenterprise system using IT to support/manage links between key business processes and suppliers, customers, and business partners

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) – an early SCM methodology for exchanging information between partners using standard document message formats, still very popular but being replaced by .xml-based Web services

SCM optimizes the effective/efficient movement of materials between suppliers, customers, and other partners

iii benefits and challenges of scm
III. Benefits and Challenges of SCM

SCM solutions are becoming more complex


Faster, More Accurate Order Processing

Reductions in Inventory Levels

Quicker Times to Market

Lower Transaction and Materials Costs

Strategic Relationships with Suppliers

iii benefits and challenges of scm16
III. Benefits and Challenges of SCM

Challenges – SCM Failures Caused By:

Lack of Knowledge about Demand Planning

Inaccurate/Overly Optimistic Demand Forecasts

Inaccurate Production, Inventory, and Other Business Data

Lack of Adequate Collaboration Among Marketing, Production, and Inventory Management Departments

iv trends in scm
IV. Trends in SCM

3 Stages to SCM Implementation

Improve Internal Supply Chain Processes and Improve Relationships with Suppliers and Customers

Use Supply Chain Software, Intranets, and Extranets with Trading Partners

Develop and Implement Collaborative SCM Applications

management is faced with two conflicting situations
Management is faced with two conflicting situations…
  • We must implement all necessary change
  • We must resist all unnecessary change
  • These pose a Management Challenge and paradox
  • How can we get employees to embrace necessary change?
  • How can we create an environment that allows rational resistance?
rolling it out
Rolling IT out!
  • 40% of ERP projects fail
  • Why do they fail?
  • Why do they succeed?
the navigational guides
The Navigational Guides
  • Assess
  • Anticipate


assessing the organization
Assessing the Organization
  • Leadership style
  • Use of and sharing of information
  • Decision-making styles
  • Performance standards/expectations
  • Consequences of failure
  • Communication patterns
  • Norms/behaviors
  • Stories, traditions, myths, heroes
  • Space/layout
  • Symbols

















A View From the Future

“Ah yes.” Merlin said, “How did I know to set breakfast for two?... Now ordinary people are born forwards in time, if you understand what I mean, and nearly everything in the world goes forward too. This makes it quite easy for ordinary people to live... But unfortunately I was born at the wrong end of time, and I have to live backwards from in front, while surrounded by a lot of people living forward from behind...”

Source: Smith, C.E. “The Merlin Factor”.

  • Predictable Crisis
    • Culture Change
    • Confusion/Ambiguous Roles
    • Changing Power/Influence
    • Self Directedness vs. Control
    • Reward Structure
    • Lack of Clarity

Old Enterprise

New Enterprise

navigational guide
Navigational Guide

Creating the Blueprints…

The Plan


initial strategy development
Initial strategy development
  • Top management support - Conditions for success (including resources) have been identified, committed to, and initiated
  • Communication plan created for the transformation
  • Measurements for the change process and outcome have been determined
  • Strategy to create shared vision has been developed
initial strategy development cont d
Initial strategy development(cont’d)
  • Current change plans have been assessed for they will impact employees
  • Course correction strategy developed
  • Temporary rewards for supporting the change process have been designed
  • Temporary change support structures, policies, systems, and roles have been designed
  • External expertise (use of consultants)
navigational guide35
Navigational Guide

Identify the Potential “Fatal Flaws” in the Plan before Leaving the Dock


thinking outside the box
Thinking outside the box

Connect the nine stars using only four straight lines and never lifting your pen!

implementing the plan
Implementing the Plan
  • Management of expectations
  • Best people full-time on project
  • Business process re-engineering
  • Minimal customization
  • Information and access security
  • User participation
  • Interdepartmental co-operation and communication
implementing the plan cont d
Implementing the Plan (cont’d)
  • Effective communications
  • Presence of champion
  • Monitoring and evaluating of performance
  • Software development testing and troubleshooting
  • Vendor / customer partnership
  • Use of vendor development tools

(Adapted from “Critical Success Factors for Implementing ERP System” by Teau Hai Mi)

involving the users
Involving the Users
  • Town Meetings
  • Name That Project
    • $100 gift certificate to local upscale restaurant
  • User Teams
  • Solicit Input
written communications
Written Communications
  • Newsletters
  • Project Website
    • Information and documentation
  • Project Listserve
    • General project information
  • Group Emails
presentations and demonstrations
Presentations and Demonstrations
  • “About the Project” presentations
      • Why are we doing this?
      • How does this affect you?
      • What are we doing to avoid failure?
      • How can we all be involved?
      • Where can we find information about the project and the system?
  • Product demonstrations
  • Pep Talk
  • Class Designs
  • Student and Instructor Manuals
  • Class Materials
  • Web Learning Assistant
    • On-Line Help
  • Web-Based Training
    • Interactive, simulation-type training
    • On-demand

(Modify each of these based on branding)

training cont d
Training (cont’d)
  • Designed and developed course materials using purchased materials as base
    • Purchased materials geared more toward centralized operations
  • Progressive approach (Know what the users need!)
    • Beginners / Overviews
    • Intermediate
    • Advanced
  • Sandbox (playtime) Database
    • Mirrored classroom training database
    • Refreshed daily
navigational guide45
Navigational Guide
  • Keep a Ready Eye to the Horizon

…Watch how the implementation is



the reference point
The Reference Point

“Planning is more important than the plan”

General Dwight Eisenhower

a lone whitewater kayaker might shoot the rapids of a river, dodging obstacles by instinct and quick reflexes
why understand user resistance
Why Understand User Resistance?
  • At the root of many enterprise software project failures
  • Still a significant amount of user resistance even after nine months of ERP integration testing
  • Resistance was the second most important contributor to time and budget overruns and was the fourth most important barrier to SAP implementation
  • Users’ resistance can cause ES implementation failures
  • Low ES return on investments is because of resistance
common myths
Common Myths
  • You gradually wear down resisters. Eventually everyone will embrace change.
  • Change is a one-time thing. Once we make the changes we need, everything will be OK.
  • They are employees, they should just get on board
  • Others have to change, not me.
  • It’s really not that big of a change
  • This isn’t personal
  • We don’t have to involve them
  • We will figure it out as we go
how would you respond
How would you respond…
  • “I don’t want to.” (the block)
  • “Tell me exactly what you want me to do.” (the rollover)
  • “I’ll get on it first thing next week.” (the stall)
  • “Wow, what a great deal!” (the reverse)
  • “I think that the change would be better if it were first implemented in X’s division/department.” (the sidestep)
  • “X isn’t going to like this.” (projected threat)
  • “You owe me one.” (the press)
  • “See what you’re making me do.” (the guilt trip)
  • “But we’ve always done it the other way.” (the tradition)
people matter
People Matter!!!
  • The problem of reengineering…
  • What value do we place on others?
  • Fix yourself first – others follow.