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CHAPTER 10. Water: Hydrologic Cycle and Human Use. Water: a vital resource. Water is fundamental to life Covers 75% of the Earth’s surface 97.5% of all water is salt water (oceans, seas) Fresh water : contains < 0.1% (1,000 ppm) salt

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slide1

CHAPTER 10

Water: Hydrologic Cycle and Human Use

slide2

Water: a vital resource

  • Water is fundamental to life
  • Covers 75% of the Earth’s surface
  • 97.5% of all water is salt water (oceans, seas)
  • Fresh water: contains < 0.1% (1,000 ppm) salt
    • 67% of fresh water is bound up in ice caps and glaciers
    • Only 0.77% of all water is in lakes, wetlands, rivers, groundwater, biota, soil, and the atmosphere
slide4

Freshwater is a renewable resource

  • Streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, swamps, estuaries, groundwater, bays, oceans, and atmosphere contain water
  • Water is used for drinking, industries, irrigation, energy, transportation, recreation, waste processing, habitats
  • Water modifies the climate
  • Humans have constructed huge infrastructures to control water
    • Dams, canals, reservoirs, aqueducts, sewer systems
    • Treatment plants, water towers, pipelines, irrigation
    • Desalinization plants
slide5

Hydrologic cycle

  • Hydrologic (water) cycle: the cycling of water through the Earth
    • Evaporation and transpiration: water rises to the atmosphere
    • Condensation and precipitation: water returns to the land and oceans
  • Green water: water in vapor form
  • Blue water: water in liquid form
slide7

Evaporation

  • Evaporation: as water molecules absorb energy from the Sun, kinetic energy allows molecules to enter the atmosphere (liquid to gas)
    • Water vapor: water molecules in the gaseous state
slide8

Water vapor is a greenhouse gas

  • Water vapor contributes two-thirds of the warming of all greenhouse gases
  • Humidity: amount of water vapor in the air
    • Relative humidity: the amount of water vapor as a percent of what the air can hold at a particular temperature
  • The amount of water vapor the air can hold varies with the temperature
    • Cooling causes water vapor to condense to liquid water
slide9

Condensation

  • Condensation is the opposite of evaporation
    • Water molecules rejoin by hydrogen bonding, forming liquid water
  • Fog and clouds: droplets forming in the atmosphere
    • Dew: droplets forming on vegetation
  • Aerosols: microscopic liquid or solid particles
    • Help condensation occur
    • Originate naturally from volcanoes, dust, soil, salt
    • Human sources: sulfates, carbon, dust
slide10

Purification

  • Evaporation purifies water naturally; condensation pollutes with aerosols
    • Evaporation removes only water molecules, not salts and other solids
  • Atmospheric water turns over every 10 days
  • Water eventually reaches the oceans, inland seas, lakes
slide11

Air currents affect precipitation

  • Rising air cools and condenses
    • Precipitation results
  • Descending air warms, causing evaporation
    • Dryness results
  • A cold front causes warm, moist air in the area to rise
    • The cold air of the advancing front is denser
    • The rising warm air cools and condenses and precipitation occurs
  • Global convection currents and rain shadows cause rising and falling air currents and affect precipitation
slide12

Convection currents

  • Convection currents occur because the Sun heats the Earth most intensely over and near the equator
    • Heated air expands, rises, and cools
    • Condensation and precipitation occur
  • The equator’s constant heat causes this process to repeat
    • Supporting tropical rain forests
  • The now dry air “spills over” north and south of the equator
    • Descending over subtropical areas and creating deserts
  • Hadley cell: the system composed of rising and falling air
  • Trade winds: Earth’s rotation deflects winds east and west
slide14

Rain shadow

  • Moisture-laden trade winds encounter mountain ranges
    • The deflected air rises and cools and precipitation occurs on the windward side of the mountains
  • Air crossing the mountains warms and picks up moisture
    • Deserts occur on the leeward sides of mountains
  • Rain shadow: the dry region downwind of a mountain range
    • Causes the severest deserts in the world
    • For example, Death Valley, east of the Sierra Nevada mountains in California
slide16

Groundwater

  • Precipitation can either soak into the ground (infiltration) or run off the surface
  • Infiltration-runoff ratio: the amount of water that soaks into the ground compared with the amount that runs off
  • Runoff flows into streams and rivers, eventually reaching oceans or inland seas
  • Watershed: all the land area contributing to a stream or river
    • Surface waters: ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, etc. on the Earth’s surface
slide17

Infiltrating water has two alternatives

  • Capillary water: held in the soil, according to the soil’s capacity
    • Returns to the atmosphere by evaporation or transpiration (green water flow)
      • Evapotranspiration: the combination of evaporation and transpiration
  • Gravitational water: is not held in the soil
    • Percolation (blue water flow): trickling of water through pores or cracks in the soil
    • Filter process!
slide18

Underground purification

  • As water percolates through the soil, debris and bacteria are filtered out
  • Water may dissolve or leach out minerals
    • Some minerals can be dangerous (arsenic, sulfide, etc.)
  • Drawn by gravity, groundwater moves through aquifers until it finds an opening to the surface
    • Seep: water flows out in a wide area
    • Spring: water flows from a small opening
  • Seeps and springs feed streams, lakes, and rivers
slide19

Groundwater and the water table

  • Groundwater: water accumulated in the earth
    • It lies on top of an impervious layer of rock or clay
    • Water table: the upper surface of groundwater
  • Gravitational water becomes groundwater when it reaches the water table
  • Wells dug below the water table allow groundwater to seep into the well
    • The groundwater fills the well to the level of the water table
slide20

Aquifers & Recharge Area

  • Aquifers: deep lakes surrounded by layers of impervious material
  • It is hard to determine the location of aquifers
    • Layers of porous rock are found between layers of impervious rock
    • The entire formation may be fractured and folded
  • Recharge area: the area where water enters an aquifer
    • May be miles away from where water leaves the aquifer
  • Aquifers hold 99% of all liquidFRESH water
slide21

Human impacts on the hydrologic cycle

  • Many environmental problems stem from direct or indirect impacts on the water cycle
  • Four categories of impacts:
    • Changes to Earth’s surface
    • Changes to Earth’s climate
    • Atmospheric pollution
    • Withdrawals for human use
slide22

Changes to the surface of the Earth

  • In natural systems, vegetation intercepts precipitation
    • Water infiltrates into porous topsoil, filtering out debris
    • Evapotranspiration sustains ecosystems and recycles water
    • Recharged groundwater reservoirs release water through springs and seeps into streams and rivers
  • 1) In cleared forests and overgrazed land, plants do not intercept rainfall
    • A)Water shifts from infiltration and recharge into runoff
slide23

Cleared land affects the hydrologic cycle

  • Removing vegetation causes a sudden influx of water into rivers and streams
    • B) Causing floods, pollutants from erosion, and less evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge
    • C) Resulting in dry, barren, lifeless streambeds
    • D) Wetlands also store and release water
      • Destruction leads to flooding and polluted waterways
  • In 2008, Iowa had massive flooding due to filling wetlands and converting tallgrass prairies to plowed fields
slide24

3) Climate change

  • There is unmistakable evidence that Earth is warming
  • Evaporation increases with a warmer climate
    • A) A wetter atmosphere means more and heavier precipitation and floods
    • B) More hurricanes and droughts
    • C) Water-stressed areas (e.g., East Africa) will get less water
  • D) Global warming may be speeding up the water cycle Affecting precipitation, evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge, runoff, snowmelt, etc.
slide25

4) Atmospheric pollution

  • A) Aerosol particles form nuclei, enabling water to condense into droplets
    • More clouds form
  • B) Anthropogenic particles are increasing
    • From sulfates, carbon (soot), dust
    • Form a brownish haze associated with industrial areas, tropical burning, and dust storms
  • C) Solar radiation is reduced
    • Therefore, aerosols have a cooling effect
slide26

Aerosols affect the water cycle

  • D)They promote smaller droplets
  • E) They suppress rainfall, even though clouds form
    • FYI: Aerosols have more local (vs. global) impacts
    • They do not accumulate—they have a lifetime of days
    • SO… we can get rid of them quickly!
slide28

Uses of water

  • Worldwide, the largest use is for irrigation
    • Then industry and direct human use
  • Use varies by region, depending on:
    • Natural precipitation
    • Degree of development
  • Most increases in withdrawal are due to increases in agriculture
    • Irrigation accounts for 65% of freshwater consumption in the U.S.
slide29

Water: management and control

  • Humans use 27% of all accessible freshwater runoff
    • Global withdrawal will increase 10% each decade
    • Americans use less water than in 1980
  • Nonconsumptive uses of water: water may be contaminated, but is still available to humans
    • Used in homes, industries, and electric power production
  • Consumptive uses of water: the applied water does not return to the water resource
    • It is gone from human control
    • Water for irrigation
slide30

Sources of water

  • 37% of domestic water comes from groundwater sources
    • 63% comes from surface water (rivers, lakes, reservoirs)
  • Rural people in developing nations get water where they can
    • Wells, rivers, lakes, rainwater
    • Women often have to walk long distances to get water
  • Water in developing nations is often polluted with waste
    • 1.1 billion people use polluted water
    • 1.6 million (mostly children) die each year
  • Millennium Development Goal 7: increase access to safe drinking water
slide31

Water in developed and developing nations

  • Developed countries benefit from controlling water
    • Controlling diseases, building cities in deserts, irrigation, electricity
    • Water in developing countries is costly or inaccessible
    • They lack access to safe drinking water and sanitation
    • People die from waterborne diseases
  • Because of infrastructure to control water
    • Seas and rivers are being lost
    • Millions have been displaced to make room for reservoirs
    • Tensions increase for access to water
slide32

Technologies in developed nations

  • Industrialized countries collect, treat, and distribute water
  • Larger municipalities rely mostly on surface water
    • Dams create reservoirs to generate power and for recreation, irrigation, flood control
  • Water is piped to a treatment plant
    • It is then distributed to homes, schools, industries
  • After use, it is collected by the sewage system and treated
    • It is then released downstream into the same river
    • Water is reused many times on major rivers (e.g., Mississippi)
slide34

Technologies in other areas

  • In developing nations, wastewater is often discharged with little or no treatment
    • Problems?
  • Smaller public drinking-water systems depend on groundwater
    • Water is purified by percolation
  • Surface and groundwater represent a sustainable or renewable (self-replenishing) resource
    • But they can be overdrawn
slide35

Dams and the environment

  • Over 45,000 large dams (over 50 feet) exist
  • Many reservoirs store billions of liters (billions of gallons)
    • Covering 49 million hectares (120 million acres)
  • Only 31% of annual runoff is available for withdrawal
    • Rivers are too remote
    • Navigation, flood control, hydropower also need water
  • A) Large dams have enormous social impacts
    • 1) Displacing 40 million people
    • 2) Preventing access to goods and services of the buried ecosystems
slide36

Dams have enormous impacts

  • 3) Valuable freshwater habitats (waterfalls, rapids, fish runs) are lost
  • 4) The waterway below the diversion is deprived of water
  • 5) Fish and other aquatic organisms are directly impacted
  • 6) Wildlife is adversely affected (e.g., food chains)
  • 7) Wetlands dry up and waterfowl die
  • 8) Fish (e.g., salmon) cannot swim upstream to spawn or downstream to return to the ocean
    • Even with fish ladders to help them pass the dams
    • Juvenile salmon suffer 95% mortality going to sea
slide37

So… let’s get rid of ‘em!... Dams gone

  • People are recognizing the unacceptable costs of dams
  • 714 dams have been removed in the U.S.
    • 1) removal is not easy
  • There are legal complexities to dam removal
    • 2) Existing uses conflict with expected advantages (establishing fish, recreational and aesthetic uses)
  • There are practical problems to dam removal
    • 3) Built up sediment in the reservoir can be contaminated
slide38

Floods

  • A. Dams help prevent devastating floods
  • B. Many areas have increased flood frequency and severity
    • 1. Erosion and reduced infiltration from deforestation and cultivation
  • “Sponge effects” of forests helps prevent floods
    • 2. Deforestation in the Himalayan foothills causes extreme flooding in Bangladesh
  • India’s Koshi River broke through dirt levees
    • Caused massive floods and stranded a million people
    • The breach came because of massive silt deposition
slide39

Impacts on estuaries

  • Estuaries: very productive ecosystems in bays and rivers … we divert that water for irrigation and municipal use
    • We need them because..
      • Where fresh river water mixes with seawater
      • Breeding grounds for birds, fish, shellfish
    • Decreased fresh water increases the water’s salinity
    • 1) Devastated the bay
    • 2) Fish populations have disappeared or been reduced
    • Tidal wetlands have been reduced by 92%
slide40

Groundwater levels

  • The Ogallala aquifer supplies irrigation water to 4.2 million hectares (10.4 million acres) in seven U.S. states
    • 20% of the irrigated land in the U.S.
    • It has “fossil water” recharged during the last ice age
    • Water is being withdrawn twice as fast as it recharges
  • Water tables in the Ogallala aquifer have dropped 30–60 m (100–200 ft)
    • Irrigated farming has stopped in some areas
    • Within 20 years, 1.2 million hectares (3 million acres) will be abandoned or converted to dryland farming
slide42

Some aquifers are nonrenewable

  • Nonrenewable groundwater: more than 75% of aquifers have recharge rates of centuries
  • Renewable groundwater is replenished by percolation
  • We are tapping large, but not unlimited, natural reservoirs
    • Sustainability depends on balancing withdrawal rates with recharge rates
  • Most groundwater in arid regions has no recharge
    • AQUIFERS must be considered nonrenewable, like oil
slide44

Impacts of falling water tables

  • 1) Decreased crop production
  • 2) Diminishing surface water
    • a. Dries up wetlands, springs and seeps, streams, rivers
    • b. Excessive groundwater removal creates the same results as diverting surface water
slide45

3) Land subsidence

  • Groundwater fills spaces in the ground
    • Helping support overlying rock and soil
    • Dropping water tables removes this support
  • Land subsidence: gradual settling of the land
    • Land may sink 10–15 cm (6–12 in.) per year
    • Causes building foundations, roadways, and pipes to crack
    • Results in flooding in coastal areas
  • People in developing areas drill their own wells
    • Causing subsidence—a case of tragedy of the commons
slide46

In extreme cases: sinkholes

  • A sinkhole: another kind of land subsidence
    • Results when an underground cavern is drained of its supporting groundwater and suddenly collapses
  • Sinkholes can be 91 m (300 ft.) across and 150 feet deep
  • They are particularly severe in the southeastern U.S.
    • 4,000 sinkholes have formed in Alabama alone
    • They have “consumed” buildings, livestock, sections of highways
slide48

4) Saltwater intrusion

  • In many coastal areas, springs of outflowing groundwater lie under the ocean
  • High water tables keep pressure in the aquifer
    • Fresh water flows into the ocean
    • Wells near the ocean yield fresh water
  • Lowering the water table reduces pressure, allowing salt water to flow into the aquifer and wells
  • This is a serious problem in many European countries along the Mediterranean coast
slide51

Water stewardship:

supply and public policy

Only five possibilities exist to meet future water needs

slide52

1) Capture more runoff water

  • 260 new dams become operational each year
    • Down from 1,000/yr
  • China’s Three Gorges Dam was constructed across the Yangtze River
    • The centerpiece of the government’s efforts to industrialize
    • The largest hydroelectric project in the world
    • 1.2 million people have been relocated to make way for the 600 km (370 mile) long reservoir
    • 3–4 million more will be displaced
slide53

2) Tapping more groundwater

  • Groundwater depletion: the greatest threat to irrigated agriculture
    • Declining water tables occur in India, China, American West, the former Soviet Union, the Arabian Peninsula
  • A 20% expansion in irrigation may be possible
    • But will not meet food needs by 2030
  • Groundwater is also being polluted by fertilizers, pesticides, animal waste, and industrial chemicals
    • Arsenic in groundwater in India and Bangladesh has sickened and killed millions
slide54

3) Desalting seawater

  • Desalination: desalting of seawater for domestic use
    • 13,000 desalination plants in 120 countries
    • Especially in the Middle East
  • A. Smaller plants use microfiltration (reverse osmosis [RO])
    • Water is forced through a fine membrane to remove salt
  • B. Large plants use distillation (evaporation and condensation)
    • Waste heat from power plants may be used
  • Desalination costs two to four times what most U.S. people pay
    • Desalinized water costs about $2 for 1,000 gallons
slide55

EXAMPLE: Tampa Bay leads the way in the U.S.

  • The Tampa Bay seawater desalination plant was completed in 2008
    • The first U.S. plant built for a primary water source
    • It uses salty cooling water from a power plant
    • It produces 25 million gallons per day (MGD)
    • It costs $2.50/1,000 gallons (groundwater = $1/1,000 gallons)
  • Most people in the U.S. can afford desalinized water
    • But costs are too high for most agricultural use
  • The world’s largest plant is in the United Arab Emirates
    • It produces 215 MGD (2,500 gallons/second)
slide56

4) Using less water

  • People in developing nations use 1 gallon/person/day for all their needs, including cooking and washing
  • A person in the U.S. uses 100 gal/person/day
    • Indirect uses (irrigation) increases use to 1,000 gal/person/day
    • Don’t think how much water we need and where we get it
    • Think how much water is available and how can we best use it
  • The rate of water use has dropped because of conservation
slide57

5) Conserving water: agriculture

  • Agriculture is the largest user of fresh water
    • 40% of crops are grown in irrigated soil
  • A. Current flood or center-pivot irrigation wastes huge amounts of water
    • Evaporation, percolation, runoff
  • B. The surge flow method uses computers to control release of water
  • C. The drip irrigation method uses pipes with holes to drip water at the base of each plant
    • Wastes less water, retards salinization, increases yields
irrigation
Irrigation

Irrigation: supplying water to croplands artificially

Dramatically increases production

Is a major contributor to land degradation

Flood irrigation: river water flows into canals to flood fields

Center-pivot irrigation: water is pumped from a well into a giant pivoting sprinkler

The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation is involved with supplying irrigation water to the western states

Irrigating 4 million hectares (10 million acres)

Worldwide irrigation is huge and is still rising

salinization
Salinization

Salinization: the accumulation of salts in and on the soil

Suppresses plant growth

Even the freshest irrigation water has some salt

Watering dryland soils dissolves minerals in the soil

Evaporation or transpiration leaves salts behind

Salinization is considered a form of desertification

1.5 million hectares (3.7 million acres) are lost each year to salinization and waterlogging

160,000 hectares (400,000 acres) in California are unproductive, costing $30 million/year

salinization can be avoided or reversed
Salinization can be avoided or reversed

Enough water must be used to leach salts downward

Insufficient drainage results in waterlogged soils

Installing drainage pipes is expensive

Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge received drainage from selenium-enriched soils

Killing birds, fish, insects, and plants

It was declared a toxic waste dump

It has been drained and capped with soil

Over 14 other U.S. locations have toxic irrigation water

The “Kesterson Effect”

slide63

Solutions

Figure 14-12Page 283

Soil Salinization

Prevention

Cleanup

Flushing soil

(expensive and

wastes water)

Not growing crops

for 2-5 years

Installing under-

ground drainage

systems (expensive)

Reduce irrigation

Switch to salt-

tolerant crops

(such as barley,

cotton, sugar beet)

slide65

FYI: Treadle pumps

  • Rural poor in developing countries cannot afford irrigation
  • Low-cost treadle pumps allow farmers to irrigate fields
    • Cost less than $35 per system
  • The treadle works like a step exercise machine
    • It is locally manufactured
    • It has been adopted by millions
  • Farmers can irrigate small plots during dry seasons
    • Over 1.5 million pumps in Bangladesh have increased productivity of 600,000 acres of farmland
slide67

Municipal systems

  • Each person in a modern home uses 100 gallons/day
    • Mostly for washing and removing wastes (flushing toilets, taking showers, doing laundry)
  • Conservation has been presented as “save the environment”
    • This does not work
  • It will be expensive and impossible to get more water through traditional reservoirs and wells
  • The only practical alternative is to save water
    • Cities provide free faucet repair & low-flow showers
    • Xeriscaping: planting plants that don’t require watering
slide69

A flush world

  • In 1997 it became illegal to sell 6-gallon commodes
    • New toilets use 1.6 gallons or even less water
  • 50 million U.S. low-flow toilets save 600 million gallons/day
  • It is wasteful to use high-quality water to water lawns or flush toilets
  • We could use Gray water: slightly dirtied water from sinks, showers, tubs, and laundry tubs
    • Used in toilets, watering lawns, washing cars
  • Some treated water is higher quality than river and lake water
slide71

Public policy challenges

  • Humans use 25% of total terrestrial evaporation
    • 56% of accessible precipitation runoff
  • Many facets of water use are unsustainable
    • Public policy must strike a balance between water needs
  • Water wars: conflicts between using water for drinking and using it for agriculture
    • In southern California, irrigation water is being diverted to San Diego
    • The Salton Sea is shrinking, spreading salt, decreasing wildlife habitat, and destroying the fishery
slide72

International action

  • The World Commission on Water for the 21st Century sponsors the World Water Forum
    • The forum’s findings relate to solving water problems
    • Especially in the developing world
  • The problem is not too little water
    • We have not learned how to manage Earth’s water
  • “There is a water crisis…of bad institutions, bad governance, bad incentives and bad resource allocation”
    • We can continue with business as usual
    • Or we can move from vision to action
slide73

CHAPTER 10

Water: Hydrologic Cycle and Human Use

Active Lecture Questions

slide74

Review Question-1

True or False: Fresh water is a continually renewable resource.

a. True

b. False

slide75

Review Question-1 Answer

True or False: Fresh water is a continually renewable resource.

a. True

b. False

slide76

Review Question-2

Water enters the atmosphere through ______ and ______ and returns to land and oceans through ______ and ______.

a. evaporation; transpiration; condensation; precipitation

b. condensation; precipitation; evaporation; transpiration

c. evaporation; condensation; transpiration; precipitation

d. evaporation; precipitation; condensation; transpiration

slide77

Review Question-2 Answer

Water enters the atmosphere through ______ and ______ and returns to land and oceans through ______ and ______.

a. evaporation; transpiration; condensation; precipitation

b. condensation; precipitation; evaporation; transpiration

c. evaporation; condensation; transpiration; precipitation

d. evaporation; precipitation; condensation; transpiration

slide78

Review Question-3

______ occurs when water is separated from the solutes and particles it contains.

a. Precipitation

b. Water vapor

c. Purification

d. Cloud formation

slide79

Review Question-3 Answer

______ occurs when water is separated from the solutes and particles it contains.

a. Precipitation

b. Water vapor

c. Purification

d. Cloud formation

slide80

Review Question-4

Wells for withdrawing groundwater must be dug ______ the water table.

a. above

b. below

c. at the level of

d. around the perimeter of

slide81

Review Question-4 Answer

Wells for withdrawing groundwater must be dug ______ the water table.

a. above

b. below

c. at the level of

d. around the perimeter of

slide82

Review Question-5

All of the following are ecological impacts of dams except

a. valuable habitats are lost.

b. waterways below the dam are deprived of water.

c. wetlands are recharged with water constantly.

d. animals that depend on the water are adversely affected.

slide83

Review Question-5 Answer

All of the following are ecological impacts of dams except

a. valuable habitats are lost.

b. waterways below the dam are deprived of water.

c. wetlands are recharged with water constantly.

d. animals that depend on the water are adversely affected.

slide84

Interpreting Graphs and Data-1

Most of northern Africa receives ______ inches of precipitation each year.

a. 80 and over

b. 50-99

c. under 25

d. under 10

slide85

Interpreting Graphs and Data-1 Answer

Most of northern Africa receives ______ inches of precipitation each year.

a. 80 and over

b. 50-99

c. under 25

d. under 10

slide86

Interpreting Graphs and Data-2

The number one use for water worldwide is

a. domestic.

b. industry.

c. agriculture.

d. zoos.

slide87

Interpreting Graphs and Data-2 Answer

The number one use for water worldwide is

a. domestic.

b. industry.

c. agriculture.

d. zoos.

slide88

Thinking Environmentally-1

______ water is water in vapor form, while ______ water is liquid water wherever it occurs.

a. Blue; green

b. Gray; blue

c. Green; gray

d. Green; blue

slide89

Thinking Environmentally-1 Answer

______ water is water in vapor form, while ______ water is liquid water wherever it occurs.

a. Blue; green

b. Gray; blue

c. Green; gray

d. Green; blue

slide90

Thinking Environmentally-2

Atmospheric pollution (in the form of anthropogenic aerosols) affects the hydrologic cycle in which of the following ways?

a. The aerosols suppress rainfall.

b. The aerosols have a cooling effect in the atmosphere.

c. The aerosols lead to increased dust and smoke in the air.

d. all of the above

slide91

Thinking Environmentally-2 Answer

Atmospheric pollution (in the form of anthropogenic aerosols) affects the hydrologic cycle in which of the following ways?

a. The aerosols suppress rainfall.

b. The aerosols have a cooling effect in the atmosphere.

c. The aerosols lead to increased dust and smoke in the air.

d. all of the above