Orbital Diagrams

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# Orbital Diagrams - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Orbital Diagrams. What is an orbital diagram?. An orbital diagram is a representation of an atom where arrows in boxes are used to show the electron configuration of the atom. s =  p =  d =  f = . 3 Principles.

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### Orbital Diagrams

What is an orbital diagram?
• An orbital diagram is a representation of an atom where arrows in boxes are used to show the electron configuration of the atom.

s =  p =  d =  f = 

3 Principles
• The location of the electrons in an atom can be predicted by using and applying three important principles:
• the Aufbau principle,
• the Pauli exclusion principle
• Hund’srule.
Aufbau Principle
• The Aufbau Principle states that electrons are added one at a time to the lowest energy orbital available until all the electrons of the atom have been accounted for.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
• The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that an orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons. To occupy the same orbital, 2 electrons must spin in opposite directions. Each electron is represented by an arrow. The arrow points upward when the electron spin () is counterclockwise and downward when the electron spin is clockwise.
Hund’s Rule
• The Hund’sRule states that electrons occupy equal-energy orbitals so that a maximum number of unpaired electrons results.
SAMPLE PROBLEMS:

Element Total electrons EC OD

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