Michael Faraday • Renowned physicist and chemist • Best known for the discovery of electromagnetic induction and the first two laws of electrolysis • 1st law: the amount of chemical change produced by a current is proportional to the quantity of electricity passed • 2nd law: the quantities of substances liberated or deposited of the electrode by the passage of a given quantity of electricity (current) are proportional to the chemical equivalent weights of those substances
1821: Built two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: • Continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire • 1831: using induction ring he discovered the electromagnetic induction: the generation of electricity in a wire by means of the electromagnetic effect • This induction ring was the first electric transformer
September 1831: discovered magneto-electric induction: • Attached two wires through a sliding contact to a copper disc, he rotated the disc between the poles of a horseshoe magnet and obtained a continuous direct current • This was the first generator • 1832: he proved that the electricity induced from a magnet, voltaic energy produced by a battery, and static electricity are all the same • He was also partly responsible for coining terms such as electrode, cathode and ion. • Gave his name to the farad, originally describing a unit of electrical charge but later a unit of electrical capacitance.
Jedlik’s Dynamo • 1827 • Hungarian physicist AnyosJedlik • Experimentation with electromagnetic rotating devices called self rotators • Siemens and Wheatstone
Faraday’s Law and Disc • 1831-1832 • Law: an electromotive force is generated in an electrical conductor that encircles a varying magnetic flux. • First electromagnetic generator called Faraday Disc
HippolytePixii • First official dynamo • Industrial sized companies • Commutator • Discovery of DC electric motor, AC alternator, AC synchrononous and rotary converter.
Electric Motor • Converts electrical energy into mechanical energy • Operates through magnetic fields and conductors to generate force
Electric Motor • When an electric current is passed through a wire loop in a magnetic field, the loop will rotate and the rotating motion is transmitted to a shaft providing useful mechanical work.
Electric Motor • Used for: • Pump impeller • Fan • Lifting materials
Dynamo • Produces electrical energy from mechanical energy • Another name is electrical generator
Dynamo • First electrical generators capable of delivering power for industry
Dynamo • Uses rotating coils of wire and magnetic fields to convert mechanical rotation into a pulsing direct electric current.
Stator • 2 Permanent Magnets Housing
Rotor • Also know as the armature.
Other Electric Motors • http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=IAU9508
Types of Motors AC DC Universal Motors
DC Motors Direct current Brush motor Angular momentum Brushless motor Rotating switch Used for refined speed
AC Motors Alternating current Synchronous motors Rotor and alignment of stator field Asynchronous motors “Slips”
Universal Motors AC and DC Higher watt motor
The Future • Decreases in Size • Nanometer; molecular motors • 1/60,000 as thick as human hair
The Electric Vehicle • Trying to develop the self sufficient vehicle • Tesla motorcars • Hybrid motor and electric vehicles