personality and the self n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Personality and the Self PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Personality and the Self

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 26

Personality and the Self - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 94 Views
  • Uploaded on

Personality and the Self. Basic Issues and Processes. Basic Concepts. William James I – self as knower, experiencer , present tense, story teller Vs. Me – self as known, experienced, past tense, story. Me – Self Concept. Components of Me: Physical – awareness of appearance

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Personality and the Self


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
    Presentation Transcript
    1. Personality and the Self Basic Issues and Processes

    2. Basic Concepts • William James I – self as knower, experiencer, present tense, story teller Vs. Me – self as known, experienced, past tense, story

    3. Me – Self Concept Components of Me: Physical – awareness of appearance Social – awareness of others’ perceptions Spiritual – awareness of qualities, attributes

    4. Elephant self awareness

    5. Self-schema • Organized set of constructs pertaining to ones self • Research emphasis is on processing information Republicans masculine Jogs Fred Athletic No quiche Tennis beer Pizza

    6. Self schema • Effects • Perceptions of others • Use central traits in perceiving others • Self memory • Recall schema-consistent behaviors

    7. Self-Esteem Different from self-concept? Evaluation of attributes multiplied by their importance. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Mean = 29.2; Quartiles = 25/34

    8. Self Esteem Issues • Stable or Unstable? • Individual Differences – Narcissism • Implicit – Explicit self esteem divergence • Self complexity – More facets – more stable

    9. Self Esteem Issues • Does high self esteem have positive benefits? • California self esteem funding Academic? Positive correlation; causal direction unclear

    10. High self esteem Crime? No overall relationship High, unstable SE = increased aggression Risky behaviors (drugs, etc.)? High SE more likely

    11. High self esteem Interpersonal relations? High SE report more positive Actual (peer ratings) – no relationship Job performance? High SE persist longer after failure

    12. High Self esteem Subjective Well Being (Happiness) Strong positive correlation Depression Strong negative correlation Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) Mean = 7. Mild: 14-19; Moderate: 20-28 SE – BDI correlation: r = -.5

    13. Self Esteem and Depression Why SE – Depression relationship? Self esteem as buffer Self-discrepancy theory (Higgins); relationship due to real-ideal discrepancy Real Self Ideal Self Ought self

    14. Self and Culture • Major Cultural Dimension (transmitted): • Individualism – Individuals’ goals have priority • Vs. • Collectivism – Groups’ goals have priority

    15. Self and Culture • Individualism = Independent self • Collectivism = interdependent self Mother Friend Friend Self Mother Self Friend Friend

    16. Self and Culture • Cultural Differences in Self Reflected in Language: • Independent/individualist: • 1st person singular pronoun • Non pro-drop (pronouns usually required) • Family name last • Interdependent/collectivist: • Pronouns marked for relationship • Pro-drop (pronouns optional) • Family name first

    17. Self and Culture • Selected Manifestations of Cultural Differences in Self: • Fundamental Attribution Error • Cognitive Dissonance • Locus of Control

    18. Development of Self (Me) • How and When does Self-Concept Develop? • Awareness of Physical Self at 18-24 mos. • Development as Social Process (Mead) • Reciprocal Role-Taking • Imagine how perceived by others (social me) • Some feedback but misinterpretations possible • Generalized Other: Me = sense of how perceived by people in general • Self concept dependent on others

    19. Development of Self (Me) • Evidence for Self as Social Construct • Humans/chimps raised in isolation • Myamoto & Dornbush • Collect ratings of: • Beliefs about how perceived by specific others (e.g. other frat. members) • Beliefs about how perceived by people in general • How one is actually perceived by others (other frat. members) • Self ratings

    20. Development of Self (Me) • Evidence for Self as Social Construct • Mere presence (Morse & Gergen): • Male Ps apply for job • Complete application forms including self esteem measure • Another job applicant (confederate) enters • Mr. Clean – self esteem drops • Mr. Dirty – self esteem increases • Social comparison and Instability

    21. Development of Self • Entirely Dependent on Others? • Strategies for Lessening Influence of Others: • Choose with whom to interact • Prefer self-consistent or positive feedback? • Choose with whom to compare • Downward social comparison • Behavioral Confirmation • Swan study: • Dominant and submissive Ps given contradictory feedback • Act to confirm self view

    22. Self Presentation • Ervin Goffman (self-presentation/impression management) • Act so as to convey desired image (Behavioral Confirmation) • Personality = performance (no internal traits) • “All the worlds a stage, • And all the men and women merely players” • Self influenced by others’ perceptions; but actively strive to influence others’ perceptions

    23. Goffman’s Theory of Self Presentation • 1. Everything we do carries identity implications (can be used in impression formation) • Choices regarding personal appearance, room appearance, consumer products, etc. • Gosling and Music choices: • Blues, jazz, classical and folk: "reflective and complex" • Heavy metal and alternative: "intense and rebellious“ • rap/hip-hop, soul/funk: "energetic and rhythmic” • Cannot not communicate

    24. Goffman’s Theory of Self Presentation • 2. People take implications into account in order to convey a particular image • Habitual/automatic and Conscious/deliberate • Always self presenting? Exceptions? • Positive images only? • Braginsky, Braginsky, & Ring • Schizophrenia and self-presentation • Interview for release or backward