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Attitudinal data on ‘human security’ in India: Complicating the discussion on ‘freedom from want’. [SDSA data set – 200 PowerPoint Presentation
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Attitudinal data on ‘human security’ in India: Complicating the discussion on ‘freedom from want’. [SDSA data set – 2005]. Peter Ronald deSouza Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, Delhi. NTS Inaugural Meeting, Singapore 8-9 Jan 2007. Organized by IDSS, NTU Singapore.

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Attitudinal data on ‘human security’ in India: Complicating the discussion on ‘freedom from want’.[SDSA data set – 2005]

Peter Ronald deSouza

Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, Delhi.

NTS Inaugural Meeting, Singapore 8-9 Jan 2007.

Organized by IDSS, NTU Singapore.

the big question what is the relationship between democracy and poverty
The big Question: What is the relationship between Democracy and poverty?
  • Sen - ‘There are no famines in democracies’. But what about persistent and pervasive hunger and malnutrition?
  • Zakaria – Using the study of Przerworski and Limongi he writes ‘it is calculated that in a democratic country that has a per capita income of under $1500 (in today’s dollars) the regime has a life expectancy of just eight years. With between $1500 and $3000 it survived on an average for about eighteen years. Above $6000 it became highly resilient’. (p69)
  • Is India a resilient democracy? What does mass democracy do to widespread poverty?
india s human development indicators source hdr 2006
India’s Human Development Indicators (Source HDR 2006).
  • Life expectancy at birth: ………………….. 63.6
  • Adult literacy rate 2004: ………………….. 61.
  • Combined gross school enrolment ratio: . 62.
  • GDP per capita (PPP US$) 2004: ………. 3139.
  • Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live birth): . 62
  • Prevalence of T.B (per 1 lakh popln):…… 312.
  • Undernourished ratio: ……………………. 20.
  • Popln living under $1 a day: ……………. 34.7
  • Access to improved sanitation: urban…… 15
  • ……………………………………rural……. 61
  • HDI Rank: ………………………………… 126
liberalization privatization and globalization lpg in india since 1990s
Liberalization, privatization and globalization (LPG) in India since 1990s.
  • Fiscal and economic reforms resulting in impressive inflow of FII, FDI and growing role of MNCs in economy.
  • M&As. Considerable dilution of MRTP. Booming private sector esp. IT and Pharma with investments overseas.
  • Opening up of natural resources to Foreign investment.
  • Decrease in role of public sector in core areas such as telecoms, air travel, steel, defense production, etc.
  • Growth of private players in services such as electricity production and distribution, health services, education, etc.
  • Setting up of SEZs.
  • Growth of big international players in retailing.
  • Entry of corporates in agriculture.
  • Decline in power of labour movement.
  • 1990-2003 growth 5.9% (Source World Bank Report 2005).
  • Poverty Ratio (1990s --- 38.9%) in (2000 --- 26.1%).
major political events and processes of the last few years
Major political events and processes of the last few years.
  • Farmers suicides because of indebtedness (in thousands)
  • Huge protests against natural resource policy in Orissa, (Kalinganagar) Jharkhand (people’s curfew), and Chattisgarh.
  • Widespread public outcry against SEZs. Maharashtra, West Bengal, Haryana, U.P, Goa.
  • Major population migrations to urban centres.
  • Demolition of slums for beautification of cities.
  • Increased naxalite insurgency with concomitant increase in CSA.
  • Highly competitive party system and coalition governments at the Centre and in many states.
  • Judicial activism.
but how do the people perceive their own situation under lpg
But how do the People perceive their own situation under LPG.
  • On a 10 pt scale from poor to rich 92% placed themselves in the bottom half of the scale. (64% bottom 3 rungs)
  • 63% felt that household income does not cover needs and that there are (great) difficulties.
  • But only 28% (very) dissatisfied with their household economic condition.
  • And only 18% felt that their household economic condition had become (much) worse compared to past.
  • And only 9% felt that their household economic condition would become (much) worse in the future.
how do the people perceive the country s situation under lpg
How do the People perceive the country’s situation under LPG.
  • 53% (very) satisfied with economic condition of country.
  • 66% feel economic condition has become (much) better compared to few years ago.
  • 74% feel that economic condition of country will become better.
  • Is this support for LPG?
  • Is it illustrative of Gramscian ‘hegemony’ or more cynically of Mosca’s ‘political formula’?
people s attitudes to lpg policies
People’s attitudes to LPG policies.
  • 84% disapprove of privatization of public sector.
  • 70% feel govt. employees should not be reduced.
  • 85% feel supply of electricity should be by public as against private sector.
  • 83% feel hospital services should be by public as against private sector.
  • 81% feel schools should be by public as against private sector.
  • 72% feel bus services should be by public as against private sector.
  • 63% support a ceiling on income and wealth to reduce differences between rich and poor.
  • 62% oppose entry of foreign companies because they exploit us.
  • Is this overwhelming support for the ‘Nehruvian’ state?
disjunction between public attitudes and government policy
Disjunction between public attitudes and government policy.
  • Public preference for greater role of state in economic activity whereas economic policies moving in opposite direction. In a democracy whose views are to prevail elite or mass? Do the elite know better?
  • Mismatch between subjective perceptions and objective economic conditions. (ref HDI). Is there a low threshold of expectation and satisfaction?
  • Increasing optimism of future (result of LPG) but want ‘Nehruvian’ state (anti-LPG). How are these to be reconciled?
new probings state of the nation survey csds cnn ibn jan 2007
New probings: State of the Nation survey (CSDS_CNN_IBN- Jan 2007).
  • Questions on SEZ.
  • Questions on Farmer’s suicides.
  • Questions on ICDS.
  • Questions on government hospitals.
  • Questions on migration abroad.
  • Employment preference Govt or Pvt sector.
  • Questions on household econ condition.
democracy and human security
Democracy and human security.
  • Growing underclass. Two sections among the poor, those moving upward and those moving downwards.
  • Democracy and LPG results in both trickle down and sucking up. We need to think about the sizeable underclass.
  • Under liberalization the state must commit itself to welfarist policies as core principle not simply as strategic calculus. e.g. NREGS, RTI.
  • Global culture of consumption has the impact of depoliticizing the middle classes.
  • While there is elite capture of state there are also..
  • … two Indias, with irreconcilable interests, emerging?