Project Management Kabul 8th September 2014 Lecturer: Rahmat Nabi
Why we study PM(Project Management)? • Project management methods have a competitive advantages. Why? Because competition is rapidly becoming time-based, as well as cost based. • If you can get a product or service to market faster than anyone else, you have an advantage on your competition. Furthermore, if you can control the costs of your work better than others, you can sell your products or services with high market share.
Project Definition In order to understand project management, we must define the project. A project can be considered to have the below tasks: • Have a specific objective to be completed within certain specifications • Have defined start and end dates • Have funding limits (budget) • Consume human and nonhuman resources (i.e., money, people, equipment)
Continue… • Aproject is a multitask job that has (PCTS) performance, cost, time, and scope. • A project should have definite starting and ending points (time), a budget (cost), If there is no end point and it is repetitive, it's not a project.
Continue… • A series of related jobs usually directed toward some major or small output and requiring a significant period of time to perform. • Dr.Luisa Maria Bunescue
Continue… • Project is a problem scheduled for solution • Dr. Juran
What is Project Management? • Project Management • the management activities of planning, directing, and controlling resources (people, equipment, material) to meet the technical, cost, and time considered to a project • Dr. Mathias lapin
Continue… • A tool to help us consistently complete projects on time, within budget, while meeting acceptable quality standards. • The discipline of planning, organizing, and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific goals and objectives. • Dr. Tobias alvi
Who is a Project Manager? • A person responsible for the planning, directing, controlling and reporting results of a project from beginning to completion. • A successful project manager must be able to complete the entire project from start to end and to have the ability to gain the goals of the project.
Role of the Project Manager • Success or failure of project depends on skills of the project manager • Beginning of project – plan and organize • During project – monitor and control • Responsibilities are both internal and external
Internal Responsibilities • Identify project tasks and develop the project schedule • Recruit and train team members • Assign team members to tasks • Coordinate activities of team members and sub teams • Monitor and control project tasks • Verify the quality of project tasks
External Responsibilities • Establish good working relationships with people who get direct benefit of the project. • The target area people • Work directly with the stakeholders from outside.
The Challenges • The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while keeping the project quality, time and budget. • The secondary—challenge is to do the priority and direct the activities and resources in the proper place, in order to achieve the project defined objectives.
The Promise of Project Manager • Better control of financial, physical, and human resources • Lower costs • Higher quality and profit • Better internal coordination
The Phases of a Project or Project Life Cycle: Definition Phase: • This Phase is also called “Project Initiation or beginning phase”, it means before you start your project, you have to answer the questions of who, why, what? Where? How much, How long? • Remember, project management is solving a problem on a large scale, and the way you define a problem determines how you will solve it. If you have the wrong definition, you may come up with the right solution-to the wrong problem! • Create the SWOT business model.
Continue… Planning Phase: This step is called include tactics and logistics: • Tactics means to plan who will do what, how to choose the right person for a right job? and how long each step will take. • Logistics deals with accommodation, transportation and food, in order to plan the project successfully, you need to have these facility.
Continue… Key points to remember for effective planning: • If you have no plan, you have no control. • Keep all project documentation in a project notebook. • Risk management should be part of all project planning. Simply ask yourself, “What might go wrong? And what might be the possible solutions?” • Planning is answering the "who, what, when, and how" questions. • Logistics refers to supplying people with materials and supplies they need to their jobs, such as food, accommodation and transportation.
Continue… Execution (implementation) and Control Phase: • Once the plan has been developed and approved, the team can begin work. This is the execution phase. This phase also includes control; while the plan is being implemented, someone must ensure that the work is progressing according to the plan.
Continue… Closeout Phase: • When all the work has been completed, the closeout phase requires that a review of the project should be conducted. • The purpose is to learn lessons from this job that can be applied to future ones. Two questions are asked: "What did we do well?'' and "What do we want to improve next time?"
Project Management brief cycle • Scheduling to implement • Project activities • Start & end times • Network • Planning • Objectives • Resources • Work break-down schedule • Organization • Controlling • Monitor, compare, revise, action
Project Scheduling to implement Sequence activities: PMI name it as “Logical relationship of the activities” which task have to be started or finished before other task. Deliverables: it means the project materials you deliver to the area.
70 Percent • … the number of U.S. Federal government managers who say that only 1 in 5 projects finish within budget and on time. • [Source: America survey of 151 US federal government managers, August 2007, as quoted in PM-Network.]
Why projects fail … • Privilege paradigm • They don’t believe in making the plan, they think we can do it without plan and its not really necessary. For example, some people don’t believe in destiny, they think it’s not true, some people don’t believe in history…etc. it’s a mindset problem; they need more time and experience in order to believe it.
Continue… • Nature of Human-being • They don’t have time for planning, they think we have to do everything fast, no need to waste time for planning, they believe in planning but they are in hurry all the time, and don’t have enough time to plan and it’s a big reason for the failure of project.
Continue… • In a study of 10,000 projects, 60% failed because of communication breakdowns/failures – that is, people who saw something “wrong” did not say anything about it. • PMI (Project Management Institute) survey in south Asian countries, June 2007
Continue… • Top 9 causes for Project Failure (January 2007 web poll of 1,007 respondents) • 28% Poor communication • 18% Insufficient resource planning • 13.2% Unrealistic schedules • 9.8% Poor project requirements • 6.7% Lack of stakeholder buy in • 4.8% Unrealistic budgets • 4.3% Lack of control/change process • Sources: PMI Network, January 2007
PMBK (Project Management Body of Knowledge) • PMI (Project Management Institute): • This is an international institute, which sets worldwide rules and regulations for the projects under the name of PMBK, it is located in New York, and has multinational branches all over the world. • This institute identify nine general areas of knowledge that a project manager needs in order to be effective.
PMBK (Project Management Body of Knowledge) 1. Project Integration Management: • Project integration management ensures that the project is properly planned, executed or implemented and controlled.
Continue… 2. Scope or range Management: • Scope management defines the boundaries of the target project area, dividing the tasks to the workers in order to achieve the planned scopes.
Continue… 3. Time Management: • Manage the time, and build detailed schedule of all project tasks. • Monitor that each task it done properly and on time.
Continue… 4. Cost Management: • Calculate the cost of professional staff, non-professional staff and materials. • Monitor the expenses and keep the additional budget for the natural disasters.
Continue… 5. Quality Management: • Quality Plan: making a plan to ensure the quality of each project task. • Quality Control: monitor the results whether the quality is confirmed or not?
Continue… 6. Human Resources Management: • Recruiting the people, defining their roles and responsibilities and reporting relationship. • Keeping contact with the professional staff after ending the project.
Continue… 7. Communication Management: • Good communication with Stakeholders or funders of the project. • Good communication with the project staff.
Continue… 8. Risk Management: • Identify the risk which can fail the project, for example: security issues, death of a professional member, quitting job, decreasing the budget. • Develop plans to reduce these risks.
Continue… 9. Project Procurement Management: • Managing the logistics • (cars and drivers) • Managing the administration • (selecting the quotations, dealers, administration materials such as papers, markers, boards…etc.