Source. Worlds of Islam. Europe 1000. European Christian Kingdom. Under Muslim Rule – 1492 treaty Granada. Byzantine Empire. What did Arabs believe before Muhammad?. Byzantine. Mix – Christianity, Judaism Zoroastrianism . Persia.
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European Christian Kingdom
Under Muslim Rule – 1492 treaty Granada
Mix – Christianity, Judaism Zoroastrianism
Small Arab Kingdoms – benefit from location near trade routes,
Kaaba – houses 360 different deities
Bedouins – nomadic, ancestor veneration, nature spirits, polytheistic
Mecca in Saudi Arabia
From: the root “s-l-m”
“Peace” (Salam) and “Submission” (salaama) “Submission to God”
Life of Muhammad– 570-632
570– Most Arabs believe Allah is the top god
610 –Muhammad’s first revelation
622 –Muhammad goes to Medina
630 – Mecca Surrenders
632 – Muhammad dies
The Kaaba, in Mecca Saudi Arabia, is the center of Islam. Muslims from all over the world gather there to pray in unity.
1. How are Islam, Judaism, and Christianity connected or related or similar? And, yet, how are they separate or different?
Why was Islam so successful at its beginning?
Independence from Judaism
Centralized power to Muhammad
Military skill of leader
Material wealth promises
Decrease in conflict
Traders use of tents
Reason for expansion seeking control of trade routes and arable land
Role of conversion
Encourages continued unification
Byzantine and Persian weakness
Battle of Talas River stops Chinese western expansion
Battle of Talas River
750-900 - 80% in Persia convert but keep local language
Who should be the political leader of umma?
Film and questions
Ulama Muslim legal scholars
1st caliph Abu Bakr
16th century C.E.
First 4 Caliphs
656 civil war
Imams religious leader… religious authority beyond caliph
Caliphs become absolute monarchs
Leaders become hereditary
Rise of aristocracy
Abd-ar-Rahman III Caliph of Cordoba prince of the Ummayad
No longer under the authority of a single caliph
By 900 weakening allows regional dynasties
5. Which one of the many Arab advances described on p.325-327 stand out, surprise, or make an impression on you? Identify it, explain why you chose it or why it stood out to you, and how is it connected to another part of the world/continent (i.e. East Asia, Africa, or Europe)?
Mongols come in 1258
Complete the map activity in classworks
6. What distinguished the first centuries of Islamic history from the early history of Christianity and Buddhism? What similarities and differences characterized their religious outlooks?