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Source. Worlds of Islam. Europe 1000. European Christian Kingdom. Under Muslim Rule – 1492 treaty Granada. Byzantine Empire. What did Arabs believe before Muhammad?. Byzantine. Mix – Christianity, Judaism Zoroastrianism . Persia.

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europe 1000
Europe 1000

European Christian Kingdom

Under Muslim Rule – 1492 treaty Granada

Byzantine Empire

what did arabs believe before muhammad
What did Arabs believe before Muhammad?


Mix – Christianity, Judaism Zoroastrianism


Small Arab Kingdoms – benefit from location near trade routes,



Kaaba – houses 360 different deities

Bedouins – nomadic, ancestor veneration, nature spirits, polytheistic

Mecca in Saudi Arabia


symbol of islam
Symbol of Islam
  • The crescent moon and star is an internationally-recognized symbol of the faith of Islam.
  • The crescent moon and star symbol actually pre-dates Islam by several thousand years.
  • most sources agree that these ancient celestial symbolswere in use by the peoples of Central Asia and Siberia in their worship of sun, moon, and sky gods.
birth of islam
Birth of Islam

From: the root “s-l-m”

“Peace” (Salam) and “Submission” (salaama) “Submission to God”

  • a trader of Mecca
  • became a religious, political, and military leader.
  • Muslims view him not as the founder of a new religion, but rather as the preacher of the original, uncorrupted monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and others.
  • In Muslim tradition, Muhammad is viewed as the last and the greatest in a series of prophets—as the man closest to perfection, the possessor of all virtues.
  • In 610, at age 40, Muhammad started receiving revelations from God. The content of these revelations, known as the Qur'an, was memorized and recorded by his companions.

Life of Muhammad– 570-632


570– Most Arabs believe Allah is the top god

610 –Muhammad’s first revelation



622 –Muhammad goes to Medina

630 – Mecca Surrenders

632 – Muhammad dies

holy cities
Holy Cities
  • Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem
  • Muhammad was born in Mecca and home of the Kaaba
  • Muhammad started Islam in Medina (and died there)
  • Muhammad “rose” to heaven from Jerusalem

The Kaaba, in Mecca Saudi Arabia, is the center of Islam. Muslims from all over the world gather there to pray in unity.

  • The Al-Aksa Mosque in Jerusalem
  • Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (the Mosque of the Prophet) in Medina, Saudi Arabia, is the site of Muhammad's tomb.
the qur an
the Qur’an?
  • The Islamic Holy book.
  • Muslims believe it is the direct word of Allah (God).
  • The word of God was revealed to the prophet Mohammed through the angel Jibril (Gabriel).
what are the basic belief of islam
What are the Basic Belief of Islam?
  • Monotheism
  • Prophets
  • Angels
  • Revelation
  • Resurrection
  • Judgment
  • Predetermination
  • Five Pillars
what are the 5 pillars of islam
What are the 5 Pillars of Islam?
  • Read .pdf handout “ISLAM” in classworks for more info
  • What did your book say about a SIXTH Pillar and what is it?
    • jihad

1. How are Islam, Judaism, and Christianity connected or related or similar? And, yet, how are they separate or different?


Why was Islam so successful at its beginning?

Independence from Judaism


Centralized power to Muhammad

Marriage alliances

Religious appeal

Military skill of leader


Material wealth promises


Decrease in conflict

Traders use of tents

arab expansion
Arab Expansion


Reason for expansion seeking control of trade routes and arable land


Role of conversion

Universal religion

Encourages continued unification


why were the arabs so successful
Why were the Arabs so successful?

Byzantine and Persian weakness


Battle of Talas River stops Chinese western expansion

Battle of Talas River



750-900 - 80% in Persia convert but keep local language


islam after muhammad 1
Islam after Muhammad:1

Who should be the political leader of umma?

Film and questions

Theological conflict?

Ulama Muslim legal scholars

1st caliph Abu Bakr

16th century C.E.


First 4 Caliphs

632 -661


656 civil war


Imams religious leader… religious authority beyond caliph


who are shia and sunni what are the differences between them and the cause of the split
Who are Shia and Sunni? What are the differences between them and the cause of the split?
  • Sunni Muslims: approximately 90%
    • Someone Elected – most worthy
  • Shia Muslim: approximately 10%
    • Family line of Rulers
islam after muhammad 2
Islam after Muhammad: 2

Caliphs become absolute monarchs

Growing tensions

Capital: Damascus


Leaders become hereditary

Rise of aristocracy




Abd-ar-Rahman III Caliph of Cordoba prince of the Ummayad

islam after muhammad 3
Islam after Muhammad: 3

No longer under the authority of a single caliph

“Golden Age”

By 900 weakening allows regional dynasties

5. Which one of the many Arab advances described on p.325-327 stand out, surprise, or make an impression on you? Identify it, explain why you chose it or why it stood out to you, and how is it connected to another part of the world/continent (i.e. East Asia, Africa, or Europe)?

Capital: Baghdad


Hadith collections


750- 1258

Mongols come in 1258


  • Mystic Islam: the Sufi sect of Islam. Pictured are the Whirling Dervishes.
what is sikhism
What is Sikhism?
  • Short video
expansion of islam 7 th 8 th centuries
Expansion of Islam 7th & 8th centuries

Complete the map activity in classworks


6. What distinguished the first centuries of Islamic history from the early history of Christianity and Buddhism? What similarities and differences characterized their religious outlooks?