Chapter 3.3 England Becomes Involved in the Colonies’ Affairs
England and Mercantilism • Mercantilism is an economic theory to help countries become more powerful, wealthy, and self-sufficient. • Mercantilism-A country needs more gold and silver than other countries to be more powerful and wealthy. • To get more gold and silver, you sell MORE to other countries and buy LESS from them.
Mercantilism • You Export (sell) more than you Import (buy). • Just like with your wallet. You keep more money in your wallet by spending less of your money, while making more of it working, getting an allowance, etc.
Mercantilism • Mercantilists also believed a country needs to be self-sufficient in regards to raw materials. • Colonies should be exploited to get these raw materials. • These raw materials would be bought from the colony, and then the manufactured goods would be sold to the colony for profit.
Colonies and Sweaters • So if America grew cotton, England would buy the cotton cheap. • Then England would make a sweater out of cotton, and then sell that sweater in America for a higher price than it took to buy the cotton. • England gets a profit, and we get a sweater.
Mercantilism, Good or Bad? Good • Colonies have a market for their raw materials and get more manufactured goods. Bad • Colonies can only sell raw materials to the home country or sometimes even buy manufactured goods from the home country. • The colonies might not have raw materials the home country wants, so the colony does not get any gold/silver for them, and then they can’t buy manufactured goods.
Mercantilism’s Significance • England did not care for most of the goods the New England Colonies produced, so the New England Colonies became involved in the Triangular Trade and smuggling. • Mercantilism also led to England wanting to exploit and control the colonies more for its own benefits, which would later cause the American Revolutionary War.
The Navigation Acts • Charles II comes to the throne as a result of the Restoration in 1660. • He wants more power and wealth, so he uses Mercantilism. • Charles II asked Parliament to pass a Navigation Act- • 1) All goods to or from America must be carried on English ships • 2) 3/4ths of the ship crew had to be English. • 3) Sugar, Tobacco, Lumber, Cotton, Wool, and Indigo could only be sold to England or other English Colonies.
The Navigation Acts • Staple Act (1663) • All things imported or exported from the colonies must go through England. • Ships would need to take a detour to England going to or from the colonies – pay taxes, and pay for the cost of an English ship and crew.
The Significance of the Navigation Acts • England became richer. • Americans did not profit as much as they would have without the Navigation Acts in place. • Colonists smuggle. • Colonists grow to resent England’s greed and interference.
America’s Big Mouth • John Lavarett, Massachusetts’ governor, tells England that Massachusetts only needs to obey Parliament when it suits Massachusetts' interests. • 1684- Charles II revokes Massachusetts’ charter and it becomes a royal colony.
James II • New England’s resistance to the Navigation Acts led to James II forming the Dominion of New England. • 1688-Massachusetts, Plymouth, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York became a part of the Dominion of New England.
Dominion of New England • The Dominion was run by a governor-general and councilors who made decisions regarding laws, taxes, justice, and land grants. • The king appointed the governor-general and councilors. • All colonial assemblies were abolished.
Sir Edmund Andros • The first governor-general, chosen by James II. • Why people hated him • 1) He made only Anglican marriages lawful • 2) Puritans would have to give up their meeting halls every other Sunday Service for Anglicans. • 3) He wanted to overturn colonial government • 4) All land bought under the Massachusetts Charter now needs to be re-bought, and you are taxed for it annually. • 5) Enforced the Navigation Acts • 6) People cannot teach school without permission
The Glorious Revolution of 1688 • James II was not popular. • 1) He claimed to have divine right to rule. • 2) Rejected Parliamentary advice • 3) Revoked Colonial Charters • 4) Catholic • 5) Persecuted people who went against his wishes • So he needs to go bye-bye according to the English populace and Parliament.
Why 1688 for a Glorious Revolution? • James II’s male heir was born in 1688, and he would be raised Catholic. • Parliament invite James II’s daughter, Mary and her Husband William of Orange to come rule England because she is a Protestant. • James II flees, and the lack of bloodshed leads to it being called the Glorious Revolution.
The English Bill of Rights • 1689- William and Mary must swear an oath to obey Parliament or they cannot take the throne. The English Bill of Rights – • 1) The king can’t suspend laws and create his own courts • 2) King can’t impose taxes or raise army without Parliament’s consent. • 3) Freedom of speech within Parliament • 4) Banned excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishments • 5) Every English citizen has the right to petition the king • 6) Every English citizen has the right to an impartial jury
Toleration Act • 1689- Parliament grants the freedom of religion to almost all Protestants. • Catholics and Jews – not included.
The Significance of The Glorious Revolution and Toleration Act • The English Bill of Rights and Toleration Act influenced the Declaration of Independence and how colonists viewed the government. • Revolution against a king is justified again (Remember Charles I?). • The colonists imprison Andros and the councilors, and they are shipped to England. • William and Mary disband the Dominion of New England and make a charter for Massachusetts Bay Colony, Plymouth, and Maine to form the Royal Colony of Massachusetts. They do not reinstate former charters.
John Locke Two Treatises of Government • Monarchs ruled by consent of the people. • Natural Rights- all people have right to life, liberty, and property. • Social Contract Theory- People agree to obey government laws, and the government protects their natural rights. • Kings can be overthrown if they break the contract.