Cultural Development and Physical Geography. India. India is located on the continent of Asia between Pakistan (west), China (ne) and myanmar (east) arabian sea (SW) indian ocean (sWE). Beliefs. Hinduism Buddhism. Original Buddhism Teaches that desire causes suffering
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India India is located on the continent of Asia between Pakistan (west), China (ne) and myanmar (east) arabian sea (SW) indian ocean (sW\E)
Beliefs Hinduism Buddhism
Original Buddhism Teaches that desire causes suffering People hope to achieve a state of peace called nirvana through self-denial The idea of self-denial was hard for people to follow New ideas Teaches that Buddha was a god Teaches that people can become Buddhas Teaches that Buddhas can give up nirvana to save humanity through good works and self-sacrifice Popular with the people Buddhism
Original Hinduism Belief in many gods Priests only could perform sacrifices and ceremonies to the gods Limited interest with the people New Ideas Began to believe in one divine force 3 important gods that represent the divine force Brahma – center of the world Vishnu – preserver of the world Shiva – destroyer of the world Popular gods interested the people Hinduism
Indian Culture Because of its location, people from other races (Persia, Central Asia and Greece) fled to Northern India during times of political trouble in their country. Because of its location it was also a great area for trade by sea and land. These 2 groups of people brought new languages and customs to India
LAND TRADE Different groups controlled India because of its valuable resources Invaders spread trade to new areas especially through the Silk Roads Silk Roads – trade routes that carried products (silk) from China to Asia (India) to Rome SEA TRADE Sea routes allowed for trade between India and other countries They imported gold and ivory from Africa and exported cotton cloth They imported dates and horses from Arabia and exported rice and wheat They imported silk from China and exported cotton cloth and animals Trade in India
Other things traded • Trade allowed for Indian merchants to become wealthy. It also allowed new ideas to be shared: Religion – Buddhism and Hinduism through the Silk Roads and missionaries Astronomy – learned from trade ships, proved the earth was round Time – learned from Greek invaders, based calendar on sun, had 7-day weeks Math – numbers we use today, zero, decimals Medicine – surgery and medicine
China • China is located on the continent of Asia. It is surrounded by India (SW), Nyanmar/Thailand/Laos/Vietnam (S), Pacific Ocean (E), Phillipines/Taiwan (SE), Japan (NE), Mongolia/Russia (N) and Kazakhstan (NW) Map A19
Chinese Beliefs • Confucianism Beliefs taught by Confucius that gentlemen should practice: Respect Generosity Truthfulness Diligence Kindness • They also believed their emperor had divine authority. He was the link between heaven and earth.
Confucianism • To get a government job under the Han Dynasty a person had to pass a test on Confucianism • To learn Confucianism people went to school • Usually only the wealthy could attend school
Chinese Culture • Under the Han Dynasty, China conquered many people. At one time they had a population of over 60 million people. • Because of the location on the Silk Road and their resources (including silk) it was a great area for traders as well. • These 2 groups of people brought new customs and ideas to China.
Chinese Culture • The people conquered by the Han brought in new ideas, languages and customs to China • To help with this, China practiced assimilation – the process of making conquered people follow the conqueror’s culture – by: Settling in their lands Marrying their people Setting up schools to teach them Confucianism
Trade in China • There was worldwide demand for silk • China began to trade silk, salt, and iron and other items along the Silk Road • This trade led to contact with many other people and ideas
Other things Trade and war introduced China to many other people. This helped them develop new things: • Paper – more books = more education and more record keeping • Collar harness – horses could pull more weight than in Europe • 2 Blade Plow – farming was faster • Wheelbarrow • Water mills – to grind grain • Silk mills – to make more silk (also made silk production a government secret)
China is famous for its Great Wall. Now is your chance to color a picture of this famous landmark!
Chinese Paper Lantern In China, they celebrate the Chinese New Year with lights, dragons, paper crafts and lots of fireworks! These paper lanterns are one Type of decoration used during this Chinese celebration! What you'll need: Construction paper, Scissors, Tape, Stapler, Ruler, Pencil, (Glue, glitter, sequins, if desired to decorate your lantern) How to make it: Use your ruler to measure and cut one inch off the short end of your paper. Set aside to use as the handle. Fold your paper in half lengthwise. Draw a line one inch from the end of the long edge of the paper opposite the folded edge. This will be the line where you stop cutting. Measure and mark lines one inch apart starting at the folded edge and moving towards the "stop cutting" line. (see photo) Cut on the marked lines up to the "stop cutting" line. Unfold the paper. Re-crease the paper in the opposite direction. This will hide any pencil marks. Match the long edges together on the lantern and use tape to hold it in place. Staple the handle to the top of the lantern. (see photo) Make as many lanterns as you wish and display them around your home. If you wish, add glue, glitter, sequins or other things to decorate your lanterns.
Africa Africa is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean (W), Indian Ocean (E) and Europe (N) Map pg 214
African Geography • Because of its harsh climate and environment Africa is hard to settle • There is the Sahara desert and the rain forest which prevent use of these areas • The northern coast and southern tip of Africa and the savannas provide areas for people to live
African Culture • People began as nomads – followed food • Then they began to farm and started communities • Each community was made of several families • Families developed beliefs and kept an oral record of their history
African Culture changes • These family groups sometimes moved from their original homes for different reasons: Environment (drought, volcanoes, etc) Economic (slavery, jobs) Political (religion, war, invaders) As they moved from one land to another they took with them their beliefs, language and history and cultures blended.
Beliefs • Most Africans believe in one god • Some also practice animism – belief that spirits play an important part in daily life • Some practice Christianity or Islam which were introduced by outsiders
Trade in Africa 3 tribes Most trade in Africa was centered around 3 tribes of people Djennne’-Djeno Bantu Aksum
Djenne’-Djeno People • Lived on the Niger river in West Africa • Their land was fertile because of the location • They traded rice, fish and pottery for copper, gold and salt from others along the river • Their location gave them a route for trade by river and land
Bantu People • They traveled often because they use slash and burn farming (slash and burn the grass and mix ashes with soil) • This farming makes the soil fertile for only a short time then they have to move to another area • As they settle in an area, they traded their skills and items with others they met, married their people, shared their language and beliefs
Aksum People • Lived on the Red Sea and Blue Nile • Their land was fertile because of the location • Their location allowed them to trade with people from Egypt, Arabia, Persia, India, Rome • They traded salt and rhinoceros horns, tortoise shells, ivory, emeralds, and gold for cloth, glass, olive oil, wine, brass, iron and copper
African Art Materials Paper plate, Hole punch, Scissors, String, Beads, Paper Sacks/Newspapers, White glue, Paint, Paint brush Steps 1. Punch 7 to 8 holes around the top half portion of the paper plate. 2. Draw and cut out a pair of eye holes. 3. Take some strips of newspaper/paper sacks. Twist and form them into a mouth and nose shape. 4. Use white glue to attach the nose and mouth to the paper plate. 5. Let the glue dry for a few minutes. 6. Paint your mask . 7. Use a different color paint to make designs on the mask. Dots and stripes are common African mask elements and they're pretty easy to make. 8. Cut string and attach to a hole on the mask. Tie it to secure it in place. 9. Put beads through each piece of string and tie a knot in the end. 10. Once you're finished, you're ready to show off your African mask.
Japan Japan is located on Asia. It is surrounded by water
Japanese Geography • Japan is made up of about 4000 islands • They have a mild climate and good rainfall in the south but there are lots of mountains and not many natural resources • They also have weather problems like typhoons, earthquakes and tidal waves
Japanese Beliefs • Early Japan had clans • Each clan worshiped its own gods and goddesses • Eventually they developed into one religion called Shinto (way of the gods) • They believed that there were spirits in nature • Through trade with China they were introduced to Buddhism • Many added Buddhist ideas to their Shinto ideas
Trade in Japan • Korea traded and traveled in Japan and brought Chinese ideas with them • Japan sent people to China to learn their culture • They adopted much from China: Writing Cooking Tea Art Gardening Hair styles
Japanese Culture • Japan adopted many ideas from China but soon developed their own ideas too. • A court society arose during the Heian period. The people followed rules that controlled everything. • Leaders continued to fight for control.
Japanese Culture The battle for control of Japan led to the rise of two military leadership styles: • Samurai Warriors – protected wealthy lords • Shogun – generals of the emperor’s army (soon took control and ruled through weak emperors)
Samurai Warrior As you have learned, Samurai warriors played a very important role in early Japan. Today we will color a picture of one of these fierce warriors.